HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN

HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN (1100–1890). Factors governing gentile enterprises in Hebrew scholarship prior to the latest phase of more widespread secular attitudes may be distinguished as (1) motivation; (2) scholarly facilities; and (3) occasion; appreciation and assessment of these ought to suffice to set the achievements of gentile Hebraists in the context of the cultural background, including economics, geography, and politico-religious history relevant in each case. Such considerations ought to precede the arbitrary division into chronological periods. Since, however, time and place cannot be ignored, the section numbers that follow will be used for reference back. (1) Motivation. (a) Study of the "Old" Testament and of New Testament origins and presuppositions. It was generally assumed that the Latin Bible (in whatever textform lay before the scholar) corresponded exactly, or at least virtually, with the Hebrew original; but (aa) in the later Middle Ages it was occasionally glimpsed, and from Erasmus' time more frequently appreciated, that the Hebrew Bible and its primary versions each have their own internal text history. Christian commitment to self-identification with the religious experience of Jesus, the apostles and the early Church, which had been formed by reaction to the Hebrew Bible, the institutions, and at first also the language of the Synagogue. This sometimes led to (bb) interest in post-biblical Jewish institutions and their   exploration through verbal contacts with Jews and later from literary sources. The synchronistic assumptions of traditional Judaism regarding the coevality from Sinai of the Pentateuch and the institutional elaboration of Jewish life at its contemporary phase of development (as the modern scholar would consider it) were not questioned, except insofar as the Gospels may obliquely query them. The Christian student thus regarded his Jewish informants as an organically living, though theologically fossilized specimen of the personal, domestic, social, jurisprudential, ethical, and speculative realities of ancient Ereẓ Israel. Curiosity was often aroused by the presence of a vigorous Jewish life as an enclave within Christendom and in part independent of its presuppositions. This also acted as a spur to (c) missionary activity toward the Jews, expressed not only in preaching but (cc) by engagement in controversial disputations. This could easily slip into (d) antisemitism, and the unscrupulous exploitation of rabbinic literature for purposes of anti-Jewish propaganda. (e) The revival of learning in the West, and a religious humanism, discovered anew the notion of the classical language and its literature, and as explained more fully below could accommodate Hebrew within the same intellectual approach. Finally, there is (f) incipient Orientalism, and the exploitation of the Semitic versions of the Bible both as a bridge to the vocabulary, etc., of the cognate languages and as themselves affording tools for the understanding of biblical and post-biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. Archaeological interest, which arose only recently, belongs in this category; its predecessor, the antiquarianism of pilgrim and traveler, falls properly within . (2) Facilities for Scholarship. (a) The availability of sources of information regarding Hebrew, Jews, and Judaism of a traditional, approved, and so scholastically recognized caliber, either scattered through the patristic writings, the greatest of which were read and reread throughout the western Church, or encyclopedically arranged. (aa) The invention of printing affected not only the availability of these but also the diffusion of post-scholastic tools – grammars and dictionaries of Hebrew – that could supersede them. The availability of teachers of Hebrew, locally or through migration or invitation: either Jews (who, though unsystematic, were mostly learned in their "lore"), or apostate Jews, or gentiles who had achieved a real competence. (c) Finally, institutions with libraries and endowments: originally the monasteries and the mendicant orders, and later the colleges and universities, ex hypothesi institutions for professed Christians, but at the latest stage sometimes modified so as to accept Jews as students and as teachers de jure. (3) Occasion, i.e., individual or mass movement and its consequences in interaction. (a) Medieval Christian scholars migrated from northern Europe, especially to Italy and Spain, in search of learning. Jewish scholars and informants moved on, driven by persecution, expulsion, or economic stress, but (bb) sometimes for less urgent causes, and occasionally with a preparedness to accept Christian baptism. (c) Conquests, treaties, revolutions, ecclesiastical settlement or realignment, or liberalizing reform, frequently forced (and occasionally attracted) large-scale movements of Jews. (d) A common language for Jewish tutor and gentile pupil (e.g., Norman French, or English), or mutual intelligibility through closeness of their respective dialects (e.g., Judeo-German and High German, or (Judeo-) Spanish and Latin). -The 12th Century During the first Christian millennium the Church produced two substantial Hebraists, origen and jerome (i.e., Hieronymus), whose biblical commentaries were widely read. These, together with philo and josephus , constituted the basic sources of information on Hebrew and Jewish matters, their data often being taken over unacknowledged. Of the two streams of transmission one was encyclopedic and the other exegetical. Isidore of Seville (seventh century) drew heavily on Jerome in his Etymologies, which became the standard work of reference, being utilized in particular by Bede (d. 735) and successively by Hrabanus Maurus and the latter's pupil Walafrid Strabo (c. 808–49). The exegetical tradition is likewise one of plagiarization of the standard Christian commentaries on each book of the Bible. By the early 12th century this material was being digested, often so succinctly as to reach almost catchword proportions, in the gloss that was becoming a marginal and interlinear accompaniment to manuscripts of the Latin Bible. The gloss also incorporated some matter taken from the encyclopedic stream, and was itself a literary undertaking suggested by the glossation of the standard Western authorities in medicine and law. It seems highly probable that this Christian technique of dealing with voluminous material reckoned to give the "approved" interpretation of an authoritative text was deliberately adopted by rashi (1030–1105) as the model for his own succinct running commentaries on the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud. Rashi's commentaries, which spread rapidly and with acclaim from the Rhineland over Jewish Europe, constitute the first important occasion for a fresh advance in gentile Hebraism. They were not pitched at a specialist rabbinic readership, but were meant for the ordinary educated Jew, and it was generally the latter (or his apostate mutation) rather than the professional rabbi to whom the Christian student turned for help. Northern France, particularly Paris and its environs, formed the locale, and "Romance" the lingua franca, as testified by the Cistercian Stephen Harding (d. 1134). Motivation (1, a) was central, but (1, cc) was also operative; for religious controversy with the Synagogue, actively prosecuted by the early Church, had revived in Carolingian times. It stimulated a Jewish apologetic in the commentaries of Rashi and his successors, but little of substance is known about the Christian side in these early public disputations.   Christian initiative came from the abbey of St. Victor, 1110, and its daughter house in England, Wigmore. Hugh of St. Victor, who taught in Paris from about 1125 until 1141, set himself the task of rehabilitating the literal-historical sense of Scripture that had traditionally in Christian exegesis been reckoned the mere handmaid of allegory. His endeavor brought him to the Jews, and to the fallacious assumption – shared by his successors – that all interpretation deriving immediately from Jewish sources must, ex hypothesi, be "literal," including midrashic assertions which the Jews themselves would not have regarded too seriously as "facts": for the bare "letter" of Scripture was all that the Jews were deemed to possess. Hugh consulted them regarding their understanding of the Prophets; he also learned some Hebrew, sometimes preferring a literal Latin translation to the established Vulgate reading. Deriving his knowledge from oral informants, he quoted matter found in Rashi, joseph kara , and samuel b. meir (Rashbam). Hugh's pupil andrew , an Englishman, was likewise dependent on oral sources, whereas the latter's own pupil, Herbert of Bosham, who was still using oral informants, could clearly read Rashi for himself. But Bosham's commentary on Psalms never circulated. Andrew's extensive works, which cover the Pentateuch and utilized matter from his contemporary joseph bekhor shor , were widely read in monastic libraries in England and France. They were not only exploited by nicholas de lyre (see below), but were plagiarized by Peter the Digester, author of the standard medieval Historia Scholastica, and by preachers (e.g., Archbishop Stephen Langton) whose sermons circulated widely in written form. During the 12th and 13th centuries Christian scholars were prosecuting their search for the philosophical and scientific texts of Greek antiquity and late antiquity in Italy, Sicily, southern France, and Spain. This sometimes brought them to Jewish interpreters, or to Hebrew versions of Aristotle and others made from the Arabic; but their concern with the intermediate Hebrew was incidental only, except insofar as it related to maimonides and – later on – other philosophers of Judaism who had written in Arabic and had been translated into Hebrew. It is a fair assumption – but no more – that the Latin-speaking translators of these Arabic texts, such as Gundissalinus, would have acquired some Hebrew alongside their study of Arabic. But in those cases where they were either dependent on a Hebrew version, or were collating one with its antecedent Arabic, they may very well have relied entirely on a Jewish collaborator. -The Rise of the Mendicant Orders The year 1210 saw the foundation of the Franciscans, whose Hebrew interests were mainly motivated by (1, b), and 1215 that of the Dominicans or Preachers, who, responding primarily to (1, c) and (1, cc), sited their houses when possible near Jewish quarters or actually within them, as at Oxford. Their missionary zeal was directed also toward Muslims, and consequently to Spain where many Jews spoke Arabic, and led a few Dominicans to study Arabic and others Hebrew; they may have established a Hebrew school at Paris in about 1236. The efforts of the Franciscans have left more trace in England, due largely to the encouragement of Robert Grosseteste (d. 1253), bishop of Lincoln, and to the pioneering endeavors of roger bacon , himself an author of Greek and Hebrew grammars, who grasped the cognate nature of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic. An interlinear glossation of the Hebrew Bible (superscriptio Lincolniensis) reflects in its name Grosseteste's encouragement: it follows the Hebrew word order with syllabically literal faithfulness, and often reflects Rashi's exegesis and develops his Norman-French glosses. The Psalms version survives complete, and fragments of other parts of the Bible, but coverage was probably not completed; and Henry of Cossey, a Cambridge Franciscan (d. 1336), in saying that the Church had "not yet" authorized the version, may imply domestic aspiration or a serious project. The collaboration of Jews, possibly reluctant and still faithful rather than apostates, has been proved. Thus facility (2, b) was apparently available preeminently in France and England, and the English expulsion of 1290 (occasion type 2, b) may have increased potential consultants in Paris and elsewhere. The result of this (and doubtless other unrecorded) interest, alongside motive (1, aa; see below) was the enactment of the ecclesiastical Council of Vienne (1312) – thanks to the efforts of the Arabist Raymond Lull – that two teaching posts each for Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic should be established at Paris, Oxford, Bologna, and Salamanca respectively. In Oxford the converted Jew John of Bristol taught Hebrew and Greek for a few years from 1321, and in Paris and Salamanca the Hebrew chair was staffed for about a century, but that of Paris certainly thereafter lapsed. The superscriptio was forgotten, possibly being overshadowed by the commentary of the Franciscan Nicholas de Lyre to the entire Bible. Leaning on Andrew and heavily impregnated by independent use of Rashi, it was later supplemented by the apostate Paul of Burgos (see pablo de santa maria ) (d. 1435) from ibn ezra and Kimḥi . The Christian student apparently now felt that he could skip the Hebrew text, and its linguistic study hibernated until the late 15th century. Lyre's supplemented "Postillae" became, alongside the Historia Scholastica (see above), the standard source for Jewish exegetical matter; Lyre's work was the first Christian commentary to reach print (1471–72), long retaining its place. The other contributory stimulus (1, a; 1, aa) was the endeavor to correct and standardize the text of the Latin Vulgate, initiative here lying with the Dominicans, although the Franciscan correctoria, profiting from their predecessors' experience, were more influential. The general effect, however (in default of print), was to leave confusion worse confounded, as Bacon (criticizing the Dominican correctoria) pointed out with great emphasis; the reason partly being failure to separate   the task of establishing the "best" Vulgate text (i.e., the purest or the fullest, according to standpoint), from that of collating the current (let alone the most primitive) Latin text with the current Hebrew, whose uncompromised originality was presupposed. Such Hebrew expertise as is evinced in this work is associated with the Dominican Hugh of St. Cher (d. 1263) of Paris, and with the Franciscan William of Mara (fl. 1280), whose Hebrew scholarship was enthusiastically acclaimed by Bacon. The only permanent effect of this activity was a unified chapter division since adopted (with slight exceptions) by Jews in the Hebrew text as well. Missionary activity in Spain also led the Dominicans to investigate post-biblical Jewish literature, with a view to the refutation of matter therein allegedly incompatible with Christianity. In Raymond martini the Dominicans produced a scholar unusually versed in rabbinic literature, whose controversialist collectaneum (Pugio fidei) contains some extracts – now considered genuine – from Jewish sources which are no longer extant. A similar 13th-century enterprise, by French Dominicans led by Theobald, excerpted a number of allegedly objectionable extractiones de Talmude (including some from Rashi's commentary), the continued influence of which even into the age of print is only now becoming clearer. The Pugio Fidei remained a standard source for anti-Jewish polemic, which hovered between motives (1, cc) and (1, d). In the public disputations (1, cc) forced on the Jews, initiative came largely from apostates and from the Dominicans; and since most of the apostates (e.g., Pablo christiani , or Gerónimo de Santa Fé, alias Joshua (al-) lorki ) were at best amateur rabbinists of inferior competence to their Jewish respondents, the Hebrew scholarship adduced on the Christian side was largely repetitive. After the Reformation, Protestant tractarians were able somewhat to enlarge the repertoire (see e.g., johann eisenmenger ). -Jewish Scientific Writings In addition to Christian concern in the Hebrew Bible and messianic and similar passages in talmudic literature, there sometimes was an interest in Hebrew texts which were recognized as being both Jewish, and also creatively new, in a way that Talmud and Midrash were not: namely, scientific writings. This does not refer to the recovery of the older Greek texts through Arabic and Hebrew versions as described above, but rather to the near contemporary works – medical, mathematical, astronomical, etc. – of Abraham Ibn Ezra, Abraham b. Ḥayya (Savasorda), Maimonides, and others. In Jewish philosophy the most significant production, Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed, early became available in a Latin translation that relieved aspirant students of learning Hebrew. The same applies to the older medical writings of Jews, especially isaac israeli , while the Jewish authorship of the Fons Vitae by ibn gabirol (Avicebron) was apparently early forgotten. But by the 13th–14th centuries the scientific writings of Jews (mainly of Spain) were being sought by Christians in southern Europe, and occasionally (via these southern countries) further north; thus, Kepler was to put himself to trouble to see astronomical matter included in works of levi b. gershom (Gersonides). The presence, from 1391 onward, of many converted Jews in Spain, and after 1492 of many crypto-Jews, facilitated such studies (2, b; 2, c): not only because Hebrew teachers were relatively easy to find, and to employ (as being professedly Christians) de jure in the universities, but also because these "converts" had often carried with them into their Christian conformity an interest in, and familiarity with, earlier Jewish science, and themselves maintained the tradition in Latin (or Spanish), alongside the contemporary work (up until 1492) of their still faithful kinsfolk. -The Kabbalah, Italy, and the Renaissance Spain was also the birthplace of the Zoharic Kabbalah, the wider impact of which was first felt in the communities of Italy and Provence, where (as in Spain) Jewish instructors could easily be found. Italy stands out, already in the 15th century, for Christian kabbalistic interests. Motivation was ambivalent (1, bb; 1, c; 1, cc). The Zohar's ascription to R. Simeon b. Yohai in late antiquity being presupposed, it was reckoned authentically Jewish, and consequently not open to repudiation by Jews if adduced controversially by Christians. Moreover, features of the kabbalistic system were deemed to be not merely coherent with Christian trinitarianism but indeed potentially to underwrite it. By the end of the 15th century, Kabbalah had become a significant discipline of study for a few Christian humanists – e.g., pico della mirandola and egidio da viterbo – who were really competent in Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic. Such names mark the crowning achievement of medieval Christian Hebraism, which is marked off (though still a continuity) from modern Hebrew studies by the work of johann reuchlin and the age of print. Five outstanding 16th-century scholars in the field were pietro columna galatinus , francesco giorgio , guillaume postel , Guy Le Fèvre de la Boderie , and benito arias montano . This Hebrew interest, as the outcome of the religious humanism of the Renaissance, is linked by the same parent to the Hebrew scholarship of the Reformation, in which the same atmosphere largely prevailed – and the Christian kabbalists could never have made such remarkable progress but for the encouragement of Hebrew in Italy by prince and prelate during the earlier part of the 15th century. A revised attitude (1, e) toward Greek and Roman antiquity, as having discovered the vehicle for certain permanent values in a linguistic meticulousness that could consequently be considered "classical," easily set the language of the Hebrew Bible alongside them: since biblical values (as read with a Christian glossation) were considered permanent, biblical Hebrew, no less than Plato's Greek or Virgil's Latin, must be acknowledged to be "classical." Post-biblical Hebrew might, as a corollary, have been scorned as debased and post-classical, but it was not; perhaps because, inarticulately and   paradoxically, the Christian humanists sensed a continuity of a sort between post-biblical Judaism and Christianity, unlike the discontinuity with paganism. Consequently, despite the conviction that the Church had displaced the Synagogue as the authentic embodiment of the message of the "Old" Testament, the supposedly obsolete institutions and theology of Judaism – presumed still to be those of apostolic times – remained worth investigating. Such academic motivations were reinforced by (1, c) conversionism, and led not merely to the study of Hebrew – occasionally even as a spoken language, with Jewish or apostate assistance – it also stimulated the collection of Hebrew manuscripts, not as curiosities but as appropriate to any humanist's library that purported to be well equipped. Typical of the enterprise may be considered giannozzo manetti , who at the encouragement of Nicholas V laid the foundations of the Vatican Hebrew collection. At the turn of the 15th–16th centuries such interest flourished sufficiently to lead to the foundation of a few "trilingual" colleges – in Alcala (Spain), thanks to the patronage of cardinal ximenes (Cisneros), in Paris (College de France), at Oxford (Corpus Christi College), at Louvain, Vienna, and conceivably elsewhere. In some cases these arrangements were absorbed in, or replaced by professorships (see below); elsewhere they may have petered out. But in England the tradition of "trilinguality" (to be carried further, in ideal, by Robert Wakefield's tract (1524) on the laus et utilitas of Arabic, Aramaic, and Hebrew) passed into some of the grammar schools then being founded, e.g., Colet's refounded St. Paul's (London) – there to survive, admittedly in an attenuated form, except in the case of Merchant Taylors' School, where it was prosecuted vigorously into the 20th century. -The Reformation and the Age of Printing For approximately 50 years (1490–1540) the following three independent factors invigorated each other: (A) The emergence of a cadre of near-modern type scholars, preeminently J. Reuchlin and C. Pellicanus , capable of training successors on the basis of comprehensive and categorically articulated grammars of at least biblical Hebrew accidence, which they themselves composed. These grammars were substantially influenced by David Kimḥi's. The spread of the printing press , and the demands of Christian Hebraists for Hebrew type – a need met in northern Europe at first by blockcutting for each word. Pride of place again belongs to Italy, where movable Hebrew type-font had already been well developed by Jewish printers; the enterprise of the Christian printer Daniel Bomberg of Venice stands out. Enjoying the patronage of Leo X, and availing himself of the editorial services of really expert rabbinists (including the convert Jacob b. Ḥayyim of Tunis, and elijah levita ) Bomberg gave Europe both its first "rabbinic" bibles (i.e., Hebrew texts with parallel Jewish commentaries), and the first complete edition of both Talmuds. The presence of these volumes, often from an early date, in academic libraries across Europe may be a significant pointer to Hebrew interest locally. Pellicanus' Hebrew grammar was the first to be printed (Strasbourg, 1504); Reuchlin's (Pforzheim, 1506) also contained a vocabulary. With these basic tools, which were rapidly improved, the modern foundations of western academic Hebrew may be considered laid. (C) The movement toward ecclesiastical reform that ended in the emergence of nation-centered Protestant churches independent of Rome owed much to the claim – ultimately a quasi-dogma – that authority lay not in the tradition of the western Church controlled by the papal curia, which had encrusted the Bible with its own interpretation (parallel to the procedure of rabbinic Judaism), but in the unadulterated text of the Bible itself. Hence the need for study of the biblical languages, and for producing improved translations – soon into the vernaculars of Europe, but also into Latin (e.g., that by Xanctes (Santes) pagnini , 1528). Pagnini's was a Catholic enterprise and when the Council of Trent asserted the "authenticity" of the Latin Vulgate, this was on grounds of its embodying of and linkage with "officially" endorsed patristic exegesis (analogous to the position of Targum Onkelos within Judaism), and not by way of depreciation of the greater accuracy of the new translations. But the result was that, until recent times, Catholic vernacular versions have continued to be made from the Latin, with the significant exception of the Spanish Bible, which was a Jewish production made in Italy, and accepted by the curia through (ex-) Marrano channels. Together, these trends brought about the establishment of professorships of Hebrew in the universities, both in Catholic countries and under the reformed churches, in part as an item of governmental policy; the "Regius" chairs at Oxford and Cambridge, for example, being founded by Henry VIII in 1540. Henceforth, however, gentile Hebraism in Europe flows along divided streams – one Catholic, and the other in the countries of the Reform. -Post-Reformation Catholic Hebraism The Counter-Reformation focused Catholic Hebrew scholarship almost exclusively on the Hebrew Bible, Jewish interests that had engaged men like Pico della Mirandola being left for Protestants. The major achievements were consequently the polyglot editions of the Bible (Antwerp, 1569–72, and Paris, 1628–45). But paradoxically it was an Italian Cistercian, bartolocci , and his successor Imbonati, whose Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica (Rome, 1675–93) laid the foundations of Jewish bibliography, thereby adding to Hebrew scholarship a dimension from which Jewish no less than gentile Hebraists have benefited. In the late 18th century G.B. de Rossi in Parma likewise set himself to widen Hebrew academic horizons once again. -The Protestant Countries In the reformed countries, most Hebraists were members of the nationally established church concerned; but ecclesiastical   and political frontiers break down in the case of Hungary, where a preponderant number of the Hebrew scholars were Calvinists, many of them having studied abroad. Protestant masoretic studies produced in the 17th century some notable editions of the Bible, particularly those of the Dutchmen Leusden and van der Hooght; but the crowning achievement was the publication in London (1657) of the most elaborate polyglot Bible ever produced, by a scholarly team led by B. Walton . But during the later 16th and early 17th centuries the making of vernacular bible versions was earnestly prosecuted, having begun with Luther's German from 1523 and Tyndale's English from 1530, both made direct from the Hebrew. The names of those responsible for the English "Authorised" Version (King James', 1611) are all known, and included some of the best contemporary Hebraists and Orientalists (see bible , Versions, English). The high frequency with which from 1504 onward Hebrew grammars were published (and reprinted) must imply a student market greatly outnumbering the names of those Christian Hebraists known to us as such from their publications; many others, theologians and lawyers, etc., from, e.g., Wittenberg, Jena, Leipzig, or Basle – place-names that occur time and again on the title pages of grammars – must have carried away an ability to read the Hebrew Bible, and their casual use of it in their writings can often be traced from the indexes, or the occurrence of Hebrew typeface, in their collected works. Two Hebrew presses – at Basle and Leiden – stand out as academically adventurous. Sebastian muenster who published (1542) a post-biblical Hebrew grammar, issued from Basle a number of rabbinic texts, some with Latin translations, in which he enjoyed the cooperation of Paulus Fagius. The buxtorf dynasty carried on and extended the same editorial activity, producing translations of several of the classical texts of medieval Judaism, including Judah Halevi's Kuzari and Maimonides' Guide, as well as the first large-scale Lexicon Chaldaicum Talmudicum et Rabbinicum (1639). The Leiden and Amsterdam presses, especially the former (as also to a lesser degree those of Lund and Uppsala) printed many Hebrew publications including the doctoral dissertations of students of Jewish texts, as presided over by their teachers. The typical set task, from the later 16th century until toward the end of the 18th, was to translate into Latin a tractate of the Mishnah, or a section of Maimonides' Code, or the commentary of Rashi, Ibn Ezra, or abrabanel , to part or all of one of the biblical books (Rashi to the whole Hebrew Bible was published in Latin by J.F. Breithauft (1710–13). Although any system will presumably have depended on a teacher's own interests and assignments to his pupils, probably with little attention to work being done elsewhere, the amount of rabbinic literature thus haphazardly placed in the hands of readers of Latin is impressive. Other enterprises rank as fresh groundbreaking, such as Scaliger's communication with the Samaritans of Nablus. Dutch and (even more so) English trading connections with the Levant gave some scholars opportunity to visit Turkey as chaplains, the preeminent example being edward pococke , whose Hebrew scholarship won genuine acclaim from contemporary levantine rabbis. john selden , as a lawyer, developed remarkable insight into the workings of halakhah, and the body of rabbinic learning applied to the exegesis of the New Testament (an enterprise that had continental parallels) by J.B. Lightfoot was highly considered indeed. Chrestomathies for introducing students were also being produced, e.g., Reland's Analecta Rabbinica (Utrecht, 1702). Reland's pupil A. Schultens (d. 1756) first systematically exploited Arabic for the elucidation of Hebrew vocabulary. Among the Puritans of New England, the Mayflower had included one or two with a knowledge of Hebrew in its passenger list, and H. Ainsworth is to be reckoned a "professional"; otherwise, through the 18th century American Hebraism was an affair of amateurs, some of them by no means negligible in competence, typified by ezra stiles of yale . -The Nineteenth Century After approximately 1800 two new factors reduced the spate of rabbinic dissertations. One was the growth, after J.D. Michaelis' study of the Mosaic Law (1770–75), of the modern source-analytical study of the Hebrew Bible, largely elaborated regarding the Pentateuch by K.H. Graf , and classically stated by J. Wellhausen in 1889. This diverted the attention of Hebraists in the reformed countries back toward the Bible, especially since the decipherment of cuneiform yielded, from the middle of the century onward, an increasing body of highly relevant new source material. The other factor was Jewish emancipation, which produced a few Jews of the type of zunz and steinschneider who were academically trained in the Western sense and eager to apply modern scholarly techniques and categories to Jewish material, to whose attentions contemporary Christian Hebraists were apparently content to resign it. Conceivably the change of attitude in Germany, where hitherto much rabbinic scholarship had been prosecuted by gentiles, may be linkable to reaction against the liberalism that had produced Jewish emancipation. The net result was that what had hitherto counted as Hebrew scholarship split into two quasi-independent disciplines, namely, Old Testament scholarship, which maintained a nodding acquaintance with the newly recognized discipline of Oriental or Semitic studies; both largely ignoring "Jewish" scholarship as having little more to contribute to their respective disciplines, and as falling in an academic no-man's-land between East and West. There was thus a gap of approximately a century in the cultivation by Christian scholars of rabbinics as a tool for New Testament and other late-antique studies, until its relevance was rediscovered in the 20th century, and enhanced in importance when the Dead Sea Scrolls began to be investigated. The history of gentile Hebrew scholarship cannot be properly written until the careers and achievements of its practitioners   have been not only assessed but also correlated. The list of names which follows makes no claim to completeness. (See Table: Christian Hebraists.) The Hebrew competence of those listed prior to about 1500 may prove, on investigation, sometimes to have been less than repute has credited to the individual concerned, but these early students have been given the benefit of the doubt. After about 1500 minimal qualifications for inclusion are tenure of an official academic or para-academic teaching post for Hebrew, or defense of a thesis on a rabbinic subject, or the publication of a Hebrew grammar (authors of the multitudinous manuscript Hebrew grammars extant in libraries have not been included, unless otherwise qualified). So far as is known, the list includes no name whose bearer was of Jewish parentage but who himself apostatized. With one or two readily intelligible exceptions, it excludes all who died after 1890. This year – that of the death of F. Delitzsch , and following that of the publication of Wellhausen's documentary hypothesis – may be taken as the division between post-Reformation Hebrew scholarship and the accommodation of Hebrew and Jewish subjects within Semitics, the Hebrew Bible nevertheless sometimes still being felt to be a preserve of the Christian theologian, which prevails in the modern secular university and some of its confessional counterparts. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: (The abbreviations in the right-hand column are used in the Christian Hebraists list following the bibliography). GENERAL: M. Steinschneider, in: ZHB, 1–5 (1896–1901), cited by serial numbers;      St. idem, Cat. Bod.;      Bodl. Cat. idem, Die europaeischen Uebersetzungen aus dem Arabischen bis Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts (1849);      Europ. Uebers. idem, Die hebraeischen Uebersetzungen des Mittelalters (1893);      Hebr. Uebers. B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum…, 34 vols. (Venice, 1774–69);      Ugolini M. Kayserling, in: REJ, 20 (1890), 261–8; idem, in: JQR, 9 (1896/97), 509–14; D. Kauffmann, in: MGWJ, 39 (1895), 145–67; B. Pick, in: Bibliotheca Sacra, 42 (1886); H. Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, ed. By F.M. Powicke and A.B. Emden, 3 vols. (19362); P.S. Allen, in: Erasmus (1934), 138f.; C. Singer and G.H. Box, in: E.R. Bevan and C. Singer (eds.), Legacy of Israel (19282), 238f., 315f.; J. Parkes, in: SBB, 6 (1962), 11–28;      Parkes New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 13 vols. (1949–50);      Enc. Rel. Kn. B. Blumenkranz, Les Auteurs chrétiens latins du Moyen Age sur les juifs et le judaïsme (1963); F. Secret, Le Zôhar chez les kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (19642); idem, Les kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (1964); H. Hailperin, Rashi and the Christian Scholars (1963); H.J. Schoeps, Philosemitismus im Barock (1952); B. Smalley, Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (19522); R. Loewe, in: G.H.W. Lampe (ed.), Cambridge History of the Bible, 2 (1969), 148f.; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie;      ADB Nouvelle Biographie Générale;      NBU M. Michaud (ed.), Biographie Universelle ancienne et moderne, 45 vols. (1854–652);      Biogr. Univ. Encyclopaedia Brittanica (191111);      Enc. Br.11 Jewish Encyclopaedia, 12 vols. (1901–05);      JE Catholic Encyclopaedia, 15 vols. (1907–15; 19672); Hebraeische Bibliographie (1858–82);      Heb. Bibl. Zeitschrift fuer Hebraeische Bibliographie (1896–1920); J. Zedner, Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in the… British Museum (1867).      Zedner RELIGIOUS ORDERS: Franciscans: L. Wadding (ed.), Scriptores Ordinis Minorum (Rome, 1650; repr. 1967);      Wadding J.H. Sbaralea, Supplementum…ad Scriptores trium ordinum…, 3 pts. (1908–36);      Sbaralea Supple. Dominicans: J. Quétif and J. Echard, Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum, 2 vols. (Paris, 1719–23; repr., 2 vols. in 4, 1959); Jesuits: A. and A. de Backer, Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, ed. by C. Sommervogel, 11 vols. (1890–1932);      Bibl. Comp. de Jésus L. Polgár, Bibliography of the History of the Society of Jesus (1967). COUNTRIES: AMERICA: W. Rosenau, Semitic Studies in American Colleges (1896); D. de Sola Pool, in: AJHSP, 20 (1911), 31–83; A. Johnson (ed.), Dictionary of American Biography (1928–37).      D. Am. B. AUSTRIA: W.A. Neumann, Ueber die orientalischen Sprachenstudien seit dem XIII. Jahrhunderte, mit besonderer Ruecksicht auf Wien (1899); C. von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, 60 vols. (1856–91);      BLK Oest L. Santifaller (ed.), Oesterreichisches Biographisches Lexicon 1815–1950 (1954– ).      OBL BELGIUM: Biographie Nationale de Belgique (1866– );      BN Belg. J. Duverger, Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek (in progress).      NBW BOHEMIA: Czech Academy of Sciences, Oriental Institute, Moscow, Asian and African Studies in Czechoslovakia (1967);   See also HUNGARY, J. Janko. DENMARK: C.F. Bricka, P. Engelstoft, and S. Dahl (eds.), Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 27 vols. (1933–44).      Dansk FRANCE: S. Berger, Quam notitiam linguae hebraicae habuerint christiani medii aevi temporibus in Gallia (1893); P. Colomiès, Gallia Orientalis (The Hague, 1665); F. Secret, in: REJ, 126 (1967), 417–33; idem, Les kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (1964), 151–217; J. Batteau, M. Barroux, and M. Prévost (eds.), Dictionnaire de Biographie Française (1933– );      DBF See also above NBU. GERMANY: L. Geiger, Das Studium der hebraeischen Sprache in Deutschland vom Ende des XV. bis zur Mitte des XVI. Jahrhunderts (1870);      Geiger E. Sachau, Die deutschen Universitaeten (1893), 520; B. Walde, Christliche Hebraisten Deutschlands am Ausgang des Mittelalters (1916);      Walde G. Bauch, in: MGWJ, 48 (1904); C.F. Schnurrer, Biographische und litterarische Nachrichten von ehmaligen Lehren der hebraeischen Litteratur in Tuebingen (Ulm, 1792); Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft (1846– );      ZDMG G. Behrmann, Hamburgs Orientalisten (1902); Neue Deutsche Biographie (1953– ); See also above ADB. GREAT BRITAIN: S.A. Hirsch, in: JQR, 12 (1900), 34–88; S. Levy, in: JHSEM, 4 (1942), 61–84;      JHS Misc. R. Loewe, in: JHSET, 17 (1953), 225–49; idem, in: J.M. Shaftesley (ed.), Remember the Days (1966), 23–48; L. Roth, in: JSS, 6 (1961), 204–21; Dictionary of National Biography (1885– );      DNB A.B. Emden, Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500, 3 vols. (1957–59); J. Foster (ed.), Alumni Oxonienses, 8 vols. (1888–92);      Foster idem, Index Ecclesiasticus (1890);      Index Eccles. J. and J.A. Venn (eds.), Alumni Cantabrigienses (1922– ).      Venn HOLLAND: D. Friedman, in: A.J. Barnhouw and B. Landheer (eds.), Contribution of Holland to the Sciences (1943), 219–49; P.C. Molhuysen and P.J. Blok, Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek, 10 vols. (1911–37);      NNBW J.P. de Bie and J. Loosjes (eds.), Biographisch Woordenboek van Protestantsche Godgeleerden in Nederland, 6 vols. (1919–49).      BWPGN HUNGARY: S. Kohn, A Szombatosok (1889);      Kohn A. Marmorstein, in: ZMB, 8–9 (1904–05);      Marm. L. Pap, Die Wissenschaft vom Alten Testament (1940);      Pap. L. Venetianer, in: IMIT (1898), 136f.;      Venet. J. Zovanyi, Cikkei a Theológiai Lexikon számára (1940);      Zov. R. Dan, in: Magyar Könyvszemle, 81 (1965), 284f.;      Dan K. Beranek, in: Studia semitica philologica… Ioani Bakos dicata (1965), 29f.; J. Janko, ibid., 33f.; J. Szinnyei, Magyar irok, 6 vols. (1891–1914; repr. 1939–44).      Szin. ITALY: D. Kaufmann, in: REJ, 27 (1893); idem, in: JQR, 9 (1896/97), 500–8; P. Colomiès, Italia et Hispania Orientalis (Hamburg, 1730); A. de Gubernatis, Matériaux pour servir à l'histoire des études orientales en Italie (1876); C. Roth, Jews in the Renaissance (1959), 137f.; idem, in: Jewish Studies… Israel Abrahams (1927), 384–401; Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (1960– );      DBI Enciclopedia Biografica e Bibliografica Italiana (1936– );      Enc. Biogr. Ital Enciclopedia Italiana, 36 vols. (1929–39).      Enc. It. POLAND: Polski Słownik Biograficzny (1935– ).      Polski Slownik Biogr. SPAIN: See above: P. Colomiès (Italy); Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, 70 vols. in 71 (1905–30); SWEDEN: K.U. Nylander, in: Ny Svensk Tidskrift (1889); E.L. Hydren, Specimen historico-literarum de fatis literaturae Orientalis in Suecia (Uppsala, 1775); Svenska män och kvinnor (1942– )      Svensk B. Boethius, et al. (eds.), Svenskt Biografiskt Lexicon (1918– );      SBL See also GENERAL, H.J. Schoeps. SWITZERLAND: A.B. Staehelin, Geschichte der Universitaet Basel 1632–1818 (1957); E. Bonjour, Die Universitaet Basel… 1460–1960 (1960); J. Prijs, Die Basler hebraeischen Drucke 1492–1866, ed. by B. Prijs (1964);-      DHBS Dictionnaire Historique et Biographique de la Suisse, 7 vols. (1921–34); Historisch-Biographisches Lexicon der Schweiz, 7 vols. (1921–34).      Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz (Raphael Loewe)   christian hebraists Christian Hebraists   Name Country-(ies) Dates Religious Confession References Aarhus, Peter Sim. Denmark fl.1711 Calvinist St. 57 Abicht, Johann Georg Germany 1672–1740 Lutheran Abram (Abrahamus), Nicolaus France 1589–1645 Jesuit DBF Abresch, Petrus Holland 1736–1812 Reformed Ch. NNBW; BWPGN; NBW Abundachus, Joseph Barbatus Memphiticus Egypt, England, Flanders 1st half of 17th c. Jesuit NBU Ackermann, Leopold Austria 1771–1831 Catholic BLK Oest; OBL; ADB Acoluthus, Andreas Germany 1654–1704 Lutheran ADB Addison, Lancelot England 1632–1703 Anglican St. 59; DNB Adler, Jacob Georg Christian Denmark ?1756–1834 St. 60; Dansk; NBU; ADB Aegidius da Viterbo, see Viterbo, Aegidius da Agelli, Antonio Italy 1532–1608 Theatine DBI; Enc. It; NBU Ainsworth, Henry England, Holland ?1569–?1623 Brownist Ajtai, A.Mihály Hungary 1704–1776 Calvinist Marm; Szin. Akai, Krisóf Hungary 1706–1766 Catholic Marm; Szin. Alabaster, William England 1567–1640 Anglican, then Catholic, then Anglican DNB Alber, Johann Hungary 1753–1830 Catholic Marm; Szin. Alberti, Paul Martin Germany 17th–18th c. Protestant NBU Albert(in)a Katherina Bohemia late 17th c. Heb. Bibl. 20, 66. Allen, John England 1771–1839 DNB Allix, Peter France, England 1641–1717 Huguenot St. 62; DNB; NBU; Enc. Br.11; DBF Alstedius, Johann Henr. Hungary 1588–1638 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Alting, Jacobus Holland 1618–1679 Calvinist Alting, Johann Heinrich Holland 1583–1644 Calvinist NNBW; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Amama, Sixtinus Holland 1593–1629 Calvinist Amandus van Zieriksee Belgium c.1450–1524 (34) Franciscan NBU; NNBW; ADB. Ambrogio, Teseo Italy 1469–1540 Amersfoordt, Petrus Holland 1786–1824 NNBW; NBW; BWPGN; NBU Amman (Ammonius), Kaspar Germany, Belgium c. 1450–post 1524 Augustinian ADB; NDB; NBW; Walde; Geiger Amoena Amalia of Anhalt Germany d. 1625 Heb. Bibl. 20, 66 Ancherson, Matth. Denmark 1682–1741 St. 88; Dansk Andala, Ruard Holland 1665–1727 Reformed Ch. NNBW; NBU Andreas de León, see Zamora, Andreas de León Andrew of St. Victor England 12th c. Victorine Andrew, James Scotland, England 1774(?)–1833 Venn; Index Eccles. Andrewes, Lancelot England 1555–1626 Anglican DNB Andrewes, Roger England c.1590–1635 Anglican DNB Andrews, Benjamin England 1785–1868 Wesleyan JHS Misc. 4, 75 Anna Sophia of Hessen Germany c. 1658 Catholic Heb. Bibl. 20, 66 Anna Urban, née Weissbrucker, see Urban, Anna Weissbrucker Ansgarius, see Anchersen, Matth. Anslus, Gerebrard fl. 1640 St. 89 Antonia, Princess of Wuerttemberg Germany d. 1679 Heb. Bibl. 20, 67; JQR, 9 (1896/97), 509-14 Apáczai, Csere János Hungary 1625–1659 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Apáti, Miklós Hungary 1662–1724 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Pap. Aretius (= Marti), Benedictus Switzerland ?1505–1574 DHBS; NBU; ADB Arias Montano, Benito Spain, Low Countries 1527–1598 (nominal) Catholic Armengaud, Blasius France d. 1314 St. 18; Europ. Ubers. 6, 19 Arnd, Carol Germany 1673–1721 NBU Arnd(ius), Joshua Germany 1626–1686 St. 91; NBU Arnold of Villanova Spain, France, Sicily c.1230–1313 St. 18; Europ. Ubers 6, 20; DBF   Hebraists, Christian Arnoldi, Michael Holland 1658–1738 Calvinist St. 92; NNBW; NBW; BWPGN Artoæpus (Bekker), Petrus Germany d. 1563 Protestant NBU Ashworth, Caleb England 1722–1775 Dissenter DNB Aslakssen, Cort (Conrad Aslacus) Norway Denmark 1564–1624 Lutheran Asp, Matthias Sweden 1696–1763 SBL Assemani, Joseph Simeon Lebanon, Italy 1687–1768 Maronite Aubry, Esaias ?France, Germany c. 1730 St. 95 Audran, Prosper Gabriel France 1744–1819 Jansenist DBF Aurivillius, Carl Sweden 1717–1786 Svensk; NBU Aurogallus (Goldhahn), Matth. Germany c.1490–1543 ADB; NBU Avenarius, see Habermann, Johannes Bacon, Roger England c. 1214–1292 Franciscan Bahrdt, Carl Friedrich Germany 1741–1792 Lapsed Lutheran ADB; NBU; EB Baillie, William Ireland b. 1795 Heb. Grammar, Dublin, 1840 Baldi, Bernardino Italy 1553–1617 Augustinian St. 96; DBI Baldovius, Jo. fl. 1636 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1636 Balduin, Dorothea Hungary 1685–1739 ? Marm; Szin. Bang, Thomas Denmark 1600–1661 Lutheran Dansk; NBU Baratier(us), Johann Philip Germany 1721–1740 Reformed Ch. St. 97; NBU; EB Barbatus, Joseph, see Abundachus, Joseph Barbatus Memphiticus Barker, Samuel England 1686–1759 DNB Barker, William Higgs England 1744–1815 DNB Barnard, Samuel U.S.A. fl. 1825 Heb. & Aramaic Grammar, Philadelphia, 1825 Barozzi (Barocius) Francesco Italy 1537–1604 St. 98; DBI; NBU Bartolocci, Giulio Italy 1613–1687 Cistercian Bashuysen, Heinrich Jakob van (Holland), Germany 1679–1738 Reformed Ch. Basnage, Jacques de Beauval France, Holland 1653–1723 Reformed Ch. Bate, Julius England 1711–1771 Hutchinsonian DNB; NBU Báthori, G. Mihály Hungary 1631–1669 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Bayley, Cornelius England 1751–1812 Methodist, later Anglican DNB Bayly, Anselm England 1719–1794 DNB Baynes, Ralph England, France c.1504–1559 Catholic St. 101; DNB Beck(ius), Matthias Friedrich Germany 1649–1701 Lutheran St. 102; ADB Beck, Michael Germany 1653–1712 Lutheran ADB; NBU Beckmann, Jo. Christ. Germany fl. 1677 St. 103 Bedwell, William England 1561 or 62–1632 Anglican St. 104; DNB; NBU Beekman, Jacob Holland 17th c. Beelen, Jo. Theodor Holland fl. 1841 St. 105 Beeston, William England b. 1798 Pre-masoretic ("Hieronymean") Heb. grammar, London, 1843 Beke, Matth. Holland fl. 1708 St. 106 Békés, János Hungary 17th c. Calvinist Dan Bekker, Georges Joseph Germany, Belgium 1792–1837 BN Belg. Bekker, Petrus, see Artopæus (Bekker), Petrus Bél, Mátyás Hungary 1684–1749 Lutheran Szin. Bellarmino, Roberto Francesco Romolo Italy 1542–1621 Jesuit, Cardinal Enc. It.; Enc. Br.11; NBU Bellerman, Jo. Joachim Germany 1754–1842 ADB; NBU Benedicti, Jean France fl. 1584 Catholic Benivieni, Girolamo Italy 1453–1542 Catholic Enc. It.; NBU; Roth, Renaissance, p. 146   Hebraists, Christian Bennett, Thomas England 1673–1728 Anglican DNB; NBU Benoit, J., see Benedict; Jean Benzelin France fl. 1826 Heb. grammar, Paris, 1826 Benzelius, Ericus Sweden 1675–1743 St. 312; Svensk; SBL; NBU Beregszászi, Pál Hungary 18th c. Calvinist Venet. Berkeley, George Ireland 1685–1753 Anglican DNB Bernard, Edward England 1638–1696/7 St. 107; DNB; NBU Bernard, Hermann Hedwig Austria, England 1785–1857 Beronius, Magnus Olai Sweden 1692–1775 St. 137; Svensk; SBL Besange, Hieronymus von Austria 1726–1764 (?) Benedictine BLK Oest. Besnyei, György Hungary 1730–70 Calvinist Marm; Szin. Bialloblotzky, Christoph Heinrich Friedrich Germany, England d. 1869 Lutheran ADB Bibliander (Buchmann), Theodore Switzerland 1504–1564 Reformed Ch. DHBS; NBU; ADB Bidermann, Jo. Gottlieb Germany 1705–1772 ADB Binans, Jean François de France? ? Bindrim, Johann Georg Parkes n. 57; Ugolini 26, 332 Bircherod, Jan. (Jacob Jensen?) Denmark 1624–1688 St. 109; Dansk Biscioni(us), Antonio Maria Italy 1674–1756 Blancaccius, Benedictus Italy fl. 1608 Heb. grammar, Rome, 1608 Blankenburg(ius), Fridericus ? Germany fl. 1625 Heb. grammar, Strasbourg, 1625 Blayney, Benjamin England 1728–1801 DNB; NBU Blebelius, Thom. Germany fl. 1587 Heb. grammar, Wittenberg, 1587 Blech, Wilhelm Philipp Germany fl. 1864 Heb. grammar, Danzig, 1864 Bloch, Søren Niklas Johan Denmark 1772–1862 Dansk Boberg, Andreas Sweden 1678–1756 SBL Bochart, Samuel France 1599–1667 Calvinist NBF; EB; JE; ERK Bode(c)ker (Bodiker), Stephan Germany 1384–1489 Praemonstratensian St. 52; Walde; A. Hauck, Kirchengesichte Deutschlands, v, 1177. Bodley, Thomas England 1545–1613 Protestant Boeckel, Ernst Gottfr. Adolf Germany 1783–1854 ADB Boehm, Johann Germany d. 1535 Walde Bohemus, Johann (?identical with foregoing) Heb. grammar, Wittenberg, 1636 Boeschenstein, Johann Germany 1472–1540 Boettcher, Julius Friedrich Germany 1801–1863 ADB Bogáthi, Fazekas Miklós Hungary 1548–c 1590 Unitarian Marm; Szin; Kohn; Zov. Bohlius, Samuel Germany d. 1639 Lutheran St. 113 Bois (Boys), John England 1561–1644 DNB; Enc. Rel. Kn. Bo(u)lduc, Jacques France d. 1646 Capuchin DBF; NBU Bongetius, Jo. ? Italy fl. 1717 Heb. grammar, Rome, 1717 Boote (Boate, Botius, etc.), Arnold (Arnt) Holland, Ireland 1600–1653 (?) Reformed Ch. DNB; NNBW 4 Boré, Eugene France 1809–1878 Lazarite St. 114; DBF; NBU Bore(e)l, Adam (junior) Holland 1603–1666 or 67 St. 115; NNBW 6. Borgwall, Andr. Sweden 18th c. St. 269 Borrha(us), Martin, see Cellarius, Martin Bosch, Jacobus Holland d.c. 1771 NNBW 7 Bosham, Herbert of England, France d. after 1190 Bouget, Jean France, Italy 1692–1775 DBF; NBU Boulaese, Jean France 1530–1579 (?) (nominal) Catholic Bouquett, Philip France, England 1699–1748 Huguenot (?) DNB Bourdelot, Jean France d. 1638 St. 116; DBF; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Bowman, Thomas England, Ireland 1819–c.1882 Heb. grammar, Edinburgh, 1879–82 (completed by A. H. Bowman) Braemsonius, Anders Henriksen, see Brunchmann (Braemsonius), Anders Henriksen Braun, Johannes Germany, Holland 1628–1708 Reformed Ch. Ugolini; NNBW 6 Brecht, Jo. Reinhart ? ? Lutheran Parkes (from Meuschen) Breithaupt, Johann Friedrich Germany 1639–1713 Lutheran Brett, Richard England 1567(?)–1637 DNB Brighenti, Giovann Antonio Italy d. 1702 St. 118; MGWJ 1895–6, 458 Brodaeus (Broad), Thomas England c.1577–1635 St. 119; A. Wood, Ant. Oxon. ii, 593 Brodberg, Nicholas Sweden 18th c. St. 269 Broughton, Hugh England, Holland 1549–1612 Puritan Brown, William Scotland 1766–1835 Presbyterian DNB Bruerne, Richard England 1519(?)–1565 DNB Brunchmann (Braemsonius), Anders Henriksen Denmark 1690–1761 Dansk Brunnerus, Jos. Germany (?) fl. 1585 Heb. grammar, Freiburg, 1585 Buchanan, Claudius Scotland, India 1766–1815 Anglican DNB; EB; NBU Bucher, Samuel Friedrich Germany d. 1765 Ugolini; NBU Buchmann, Theodore, see Bibliander (Buchmann), Theodore Budde (Buddeus), Joh, Franz Germany 1667–1729 Lutheran St.122; ADB; NBU; EB Budny (Budnée, Budnaeus), Szymon Poland d. 1595 Socinian Polski Slownik Biogr.; NBU Buercklin, Georgius Christianus Germany (?) 17th–18th c. Heb. grammar, Frankfurt, 1699 Buettner, Christoph Andreas Germany 1708–1774 ADB Bullman, E. England fl. 1795 Heb. grammar, London, 1795 Burger, Nicol. Denmark ? Heb.-Chald. Lexicon, Copenhagen, 1733 Burgh, William (de) Ireland 1800–1858 Heb. grammar, Dublin, 1847 Burgonovo, Archangelus de (Angiolo Pozzi) Italy fl. 1564 Franciscan St. 123; Wadding i, 13, Sbaralea Suppl. i, 101 Burleigh (Burley), Francis England d. 1619 Venn Burman, Frans Holland 1628–1679 Reformed Ch. NNBW 4; ADB; NBU Burrell, Andrew England fl. 1739 Heb. grammar, London, 1739 Bush, George U.S.A. 1796–1859 Presbyterian, later Swedenborgian D Am. B Buxtorf, Johann I Switzerland 1564–1629 Calvinist Buxtorf, Johann II Switzerland 1599–1664 Calvinist Buxtorf, Johann Jacob I Switzerland 1645–1704 Calvinist Buxtorf, Johann (Jacob) III Switzerland 1663–1732 Calvinist Bynaeus, Antonius Holland 1654–1698 Reformed Ch. NNBW 6; NBU Byng (Bing(e), Andrew England 1574–1651/2 DNB Bythner (Buttner), Victorinus Poland, England 1605(?)–1670(?) DNB; NBU Caddick, Richard England 1740–1819 DNB Cademannus, Jos. Rud. Austria d. 1720 St. 128 Calasio(-ius), Mario di Italy c. 1550–1620 Franciscan NBU; Enc. Br.11 Calcio, Ignazio Italy fl. 1753 Heb. grammar, Naples, 1753 Calepinus, Ambrosius Italy 1455–1511 Biog. Univ. 6, 392 Caligniis, Alanus Reffaut de fl. 1541 Heb. grammar, Paris, 1541 Callenberg, Joh. Heinr. Germany 1694–1760 Protestant Calonges, Madame de ? ? St. Z. f.H.B. xx, 67 Calov(-ius) (Kalau), Abr. Germany 1612–1686 Lutheran ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Calvert, James England d. 1698 Nonconformist NBU   Hebraists, Christian Calvoer (Calvor), Kaspar Germany 1650–1725 Lutheran ADB; NBU Calvert, Thomas England 1606–1679 Puritan DNB Calvin, Jean France, Switzerland 1509–1564 Reformer Caminero, Francisco Xavier Spain ? Campen(-sis), Jan (Johannes) van Holland, Germany c. 1490–1538 St. 129; NNBW vi, 259; NBU Campoi, János Hungary 17th c. Calvinist Kohn; Marm. Canini(us), Angelo Italy, Greece, France 1521–1557 St. 130; NBU Capito(Koepfel) Wolfgang Fabricius Alsace, Switzerland 1478–1541 Benedictine, turned Reformer Capnio, see Reuchlin, Johann Cappellanus, Claude France d. 1667 St. 131 Cappel(le), Jacques France 1570–1624 Huguenot NBU; Enc. Rel. Kn. Cappel<<le>>, Louis France 1585–1658 Huguenot NBU; Enc. Br.11 Carpzov, Joh. Ben. II Germany 1639–1699 Lutheran St. 132; NBU; ADB Carpzov, Joh. Gottlob Germany 1679–1767 Lutheran St. 132; NBU; ADB Cartwright, Christopher England 1602–1658 Anglican St. 133; DNB Castell, Edmund England 1606–1685/6 Anglican Castro, Joh. (? José) Rodriguez de Spain 1739–1796 (?) St. 135; NBU Castronovate, Jos. de ? 16th c. (?) St. 241 Cate, Gerhardusten Holland 1699–1749 NNBW 4, 403 Cayet, Pierre Victor Palma France 1525–1610 Protestant, then Catholic Cellada, Diego (Didacus) de Spain 1586–1661 Jesuit Bibl. Comp. De Jèsus, ii, 936 Cellarius, Christ. Germany (?) 1638–1707 NBU; ADB Cellarius, Joh. Germany fl. 1518 St. 136; L. Geiger Ztschr. Gesch. Jud. Deutschl. iv, 116 Cellarius (Borrha(us), Martin Switzerland 1499–1564 B. Riggenbach, M.B., 1900; E. Bonjour, Univers. Basel, 1960 Celsius, Olaus, Sen. Sweden 1670–1756 St. 137; Svensk; NBU Ceporinus (von Wisendangen) Jakob Switzerland 1499–1526 (?) Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, vii, 523 Cevallerius (Chevalier), Petrus Switzerland fl. 1578–1594 Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, ii, 560 Chatterton (Chaderton), Laurence England fl. 1611 DNB Chenery, Thomas England 1826–1884 DNB Cher, see Hugh of St. Cher Chéradame, Jean France fl. 1537 Chevalier (Cevallerius), Ant. Rud. France, England 1507–1572 Huguenot St. 138; DNB; NBU Chiarini, Luigi Italy, Poland (?) 1789–1832 Catholic St. 139; NBU Chilius, Andr. Low Countries ? St. 140 Christmann, Jacob Germany 1554–1613 St. 141; ADB; NBU Chrysococca, Georgios, see Georgios Chrysococca Chytraeus, Andr. Sweden fl. 1706 St. (S.V. Lundius) Chytraeus (Kochhaff), David Germany 1530–1610 Protestant St. 141; NBU; Geiger, Zeitschr. Gesch. Jud. Deutschl. iv, 107 Cibo, Wife of Jo. Duke of Camerino ? fl. 1550 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Cinqarbres, Jean, see Quinquarboreus, Johannes Ciselius, Phil. (?) Holland fl. 1696 St. 142 Cisneros, Francisco, see Ximénez (Jiménez) de Cisneros, Francisco Clajus (Klai), Johannes Germany 1535(?)–1592 ADB; NBU Clanner, J.G. (?) ? fl. c. 1726 St. 143 Clark (Clerke), Richard England fl. 1611 DNB Clark (Clericus), Samuel England fl. 1667 St. 145; Bodl. Cat. 847 Clavering, Robert England 1671–1747 Anglican St. 144; Bodl. Cat. 847; DNB   Hebraists, Christian Claymond, John England 1457(?)–1537 DNB; R. Loewe, Heb. Union Coll. Ann. 28, 1957 Clenardus (Cleynaerts), Nicolaus Flanders (?)1495–1542 NNBW; BN Belg; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Clerc (Le Clerc), Jean-Thomas Switzerland (French) 1657–1736 Huguenot (Remon-strant) NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Clericus (Le Clerc), David Switzerland 1591–1654 Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, iv, 639 Clericus, Samuel, see Clark, Samuel Clodius, David Germany 1644–1684 Lutheran ADB Clodius, Jo. Chr. Germany 1676–1745 St. 146; ADB; NBU Cluverus, Jo. ? 17th c. St. 147 Cnollen, Adam Andreas Germany 1674–1714 St. 148; M. Brann, D. Kaufmann Mem. Vol., p. 392 Cnollen, Jos. Nicol. Germany 17th c. St. 148 Cocceius, Johannes, see Koch, Joh. Codde (Coddaeus), Guilh. van der Holland 1575–1625 (?30) Reformed Ch. St. 150; Bodl. Cat. 848; NNBW Collier, William England 1742–1790 Venn Collin, C.E. Germany fl. 1705 St. 151 Colomils, Paul France, England 1638–1692 Huguenot-Anglican DNB; NBU Colvill, Abr. Germany fl. 1670 St. (after 151) Conant, Thomas Jefferson U.S.A. 1802–1891 D. Am. B. Enc. Br.11 Connelly, Thaddeus Ireland fl. 1823 Proverbs, Irish-Engl. Heb., Dublin 1823 Cornaro–Piscopia, Cornelia (?Eleonora), Lucr. Helena Italy 1646–1684 NBU; Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Cossey (Costessey), Henry of England d. 1336 Franciscan Loewe, Heb. Union Coll. Ann. 28, 1957, 212 Costus, Petrus France fl. 1554 St. 152, Bodl. Cat. 849 Cotta, Jo.Fr. Germany 1701–1779 St. 153; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Covell, John England 1638–1722 DNB; NBU Cramer, Anna Maria Germany 1613–1627 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Cramer, Dan Germany 1568–1637 Lutheran ADB; NBU Cramer, Gabriel (Elisée) Switzerland 1822–1888 B. Prijs, Basl. Heb. Drucke, 1964, 470, 318 Cramer, Joh. Jacob Switzerland 1673–1702 St. 154, Bodl. Cat. 213; Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, ii, 642; NBU; ADB Cramer, Joh. Rudolph Switzerland 1678–1737 St. 155, Bodl. Cat. 849; Hist. Biogr. Lex Schweiz ii, 642; ADB; NBU Crawford, Francis Ireland fl. 1855 Trans. Royal Ir. Acad. xxii (1855), 371 f. Cregut(us), Ant. Switzerland (?) fl. 1660 NBU Crenius, Thom. Germany 1648–1728 St. 156, Bodl. Cat. 850; NBU Crocius, Lud. Mich. Germany fl. 1673 St. 157 Croius, Jo. England 18th c. St. 158 Cross, Walter England 17th c. Br. Mus. Cat. Csécsi, János Hungary 1689–1769 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Pap. Csekei, Pál Hungary 18th c. Calvinist Dan Csepregi, Ferenc Hungary 1700–1758 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zovanyi Csomos, János Hungary 1730–1768 Calvinist Szin; Zovanyi Cudworth, Ralph England 1617–1688 Anglican Cun(aeus), Peter van der Holland 1586–1638 Reformed Ch. NNBW; ADB; NBU Cunitzen (Cunitia), Maria ? ? Zeitsch. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Curtius, Sebastian ? fl. 1645 (?) Heb. grammar, Geismar, 1645 Czuppon, György Hungary 1755–1820 Catholic Szin. Dachs, Friedr. Bernh. Holland fl. 1726 St. 159; Bodl. Cat. 833   Hebraists, Christian D'Allemand, J.D. Germany fl. 1837 Heb. grammar, Munich, 1837 Dailing (Deyling), Sal. Germany 1665(?77)–1755 Lutheran ADB; NBU Dalmaki, Laurentius Hungary fl. 1643 St. 124b, Nachtrag p. 120 Danz, Joh. Andr. Germany 1654–1727 Dassow(-vius), Th. Germany d. 1721 St. 161; ADB Dávid, Ferenc Hungary 1520–1579 Unitarian, Sabbatarian (Davidist) Kohn; Szin; Zov; E. Kiss, 1912 Davies, Benjamin Welsh-Canadian 1814–1875 DNB Davis, Johan. England (?)1625–1693 DNB Debreczeni, Petkó János Hungary 17th c. Calvinist Dan Debreczeni, Szücs János Hungary 1630–1671 Calvinist Zov; Dan de Dieu, Louis Holland 1590–1642 Calvinist NNBW 8, 395; B.N. Belg; NBU; ADB Delitzsch, Franz Julius Germany 1813–1890 ADB; Enc. Br.11 del Rio, Martin Ant. Flanders, Spain 1551–1608 Jesuit B.N. Belg; NBU; ADB; Cath. Enc. Densing, Herman Holland 1654–1722 NNBW 8; NBU Dereser, Thadd. Ant. Germany 1757–1827 ADB; NBU Dertsik, János Hungary 19th c. Calvinist Szin. d'Espence, Claude, see Espencaeus, Claude Diederichs, Jo. Christ. Wilh. Germany 1750–1781 NBU Diest, Henr. van Holland b. 1595 NNBW 4, 504 Diest, Samuel van Holland d. 1694 NNBW 4, 505 Dieterich, Joh. Con. ? ? Ugolini 30, 1278 Dietrich, Franz Ed. Chr. Germany 1810–1883 ADB Dilherr, Joh. Mich. Germany 1604–1669 Lutheran ADB Dillingham, Francis England d. 1625 Anglican DNB Dindorf, Th. Imm. Germany ? Heb. & Chald. Grammar, Leipzig, 1801 Diószegi, KalmFr PFl Hungary 1628–1669 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Disma, P. Italy fl. 1757 St. 162; Zedner, 198 Disney, William England 1751–1807 DNB Dithmar, Justus Christ. Germany 1677–1737 St. 163; ADB; NBU Doederlein, Jo. Chr. Germany 18th c. St. 295 Doeleke, W.H. Germany fl. 1822 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1822 Donatus, Franc. Italy c.1598–1635 Dominican St. 165, Nachtrag p. 121 Dorothea Maria, wife of John, Duke of Saxe-Weimar Germany 17th c. Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Dove, John England fl. 1746 St. 165 note, Bodl. Cat. 894 Dowling, Ed. Dowman England fl. 1797 Heb. Grammar, London, 1797 Drusius (Driesche), Joh. van den I Holland 1550–1616 Calvinist St. 166, Nachtrag p.121; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Drusius (Driesche), Joh II England 1588–1609 St. 167, Bodl. Cat. 895 Dufour, Thom. France fl. 1642 Benedictine Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1642 Du Monin, Jean Edouard France 1557–1586 Duncan, William Wallace England fl. 1841 Heb. Lexicon, London 1841 Duns Scotus, Joh. Scotland 1265(?)–1308 (?) Franciscan St. 1, 50; DNB; NBU Dunster, Henry New England (U.S.A.) 1609–1659 DNB Du Plessis–Mornay, see Mornay, Philippe de Easton, Adam England d. 1397 Benedictine St. 1; DNB Eath, Augustinus ? ? G. Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 197, 17 Ebert(-us), Jac. Germany 1549–1614 St. 168; Bodl. Cat. 901; NBU Ebert(us), Theod. Germany d. 1630 St. 169; Bodl. Cat. 901; NBU Edzardus, Esdras Germany 1629–1708 Lutheran ADB; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Eggers, Jo. Switzerland fl. 1719 St. 170 Egidio da Viterbo, see Viterbo, Aegidius da Einem, Joh. Justus von Germany fl. 1714–1736 St. 171; NBU Einsiedel, Marg. Sybilla, widow of Conrad Loeser Germany fl. 1670 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Eisenmenger, Joh. Andr. Germany 1654–1704 Lutheran Eisentraut, Alex., see Sancto Aquilino (Eisentraut), Alexius Elisabeth, Abbess of Pfalz Germany d. 1680 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67 Elius, Matth. (? apostate Jew) Germany ? St. 173 Eloise, wife of Abelard France d.c. 1163 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Elwert, Chr. Gottlieb Germany fl. 1822 Heb. Lexicon, Reutlingen, 1822 Engestroem, Jo. Sweden fl. 1733 Heb. Grammar, Lund, 1733 Engotler, Jos. Austria fl. 1758 Heb. Grammar, Gratz 1758 Ens, Petrus Holland 18th c. NNBW 8, 487 Ercsei, Daniel Hungary 1754–1809 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Erdósi, Sylvester JFnos Hungary 1504–155? Catholic Marm; Szin; Zov; János Balazs, E.S. Budapest, 1961 Erpen(-ius), Thom. van Holland 1584–1624 Calvinist NNBW; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Ertel, János Hungary 1710(?)–1757 Lutheran Venet.; Marm; Szin; Zov. Esenwein, M. Germany 17th c. JQR, 9 (1896/97), 509–4 Esgers, Jo. Holland 18th c. St. 175 Espencaeus (d'Espence), Claude France 1511–1571 Catholic NBU Etheridge, John Wesley England 1804–1866 Methodist DNB Eugubinus, see Steuco (Steuchus Eugubinus), Agostino Ewald, Geo. Heinr. Aug.von Germany 1803–1875 ADB; NBU Faber, George Germany 17th c. Heb. Grammar, Nuremberg, 1626 Faber Boderianus, see Le Fèvre de la Boderie, Guy and Nicolas Faber Stapulensis, see Le Fèvre d'Etaples, Jacques Fabricius, Ern. Christ. Germany fl. 1792 St. 176. Bodl. Cat. 977 Fabricius, Friedr. Germany 1642–1703 St. 177; NBU Fabricius, Guido, see Le Fèvre de la Boderie, Guy Fabricius, János Hungary 1678–1734 Lutheran Marm; Szin. Fabricius, Laurentius Germany 1555–1629 Lutheran (?) R. Dan, Journ. Jew. Stud. 19 (1968) 72 Fabricius, Phil. Jac. Germany 17th c. St. 177, note; Bodl. Cat. 977 Fabricius, Theod. Germany 1501–1570 NBU Fagius (Buchlein), Paulus France, England 1504–1549 Anglican St. 178; Bodl. Cat. 977, 3080; DNB; ADB; NBU Fahländer, Jo. Sweden 18th c. St. 269 (Lundius) Fairclough, Richard England 1553–1630 Foster; Venn Farkas, György Hungary 171?–1776 Lutheran Marm; Szin; Zov. Farkas, Jakab Hungary 1630–167? Calvinist Szin; Dan Faust(-ius), Joh. Friedr. Germany fl. 1706 St. 180 Feilmoser, Adr. Benedict Austria 1777–1831 ADB Fekler, Ignaz Aurel Austria 1756–1839 Lutheran B.L.K. Oest. Fell, John England 1625–1686 DNB Fell, Margaret England 1614–1702 Quaker L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), p. 210 Ferenczi, Tobias Hungary 1701–1767 Catholic Marm; Szin. Ferrand, Louis France 1645–1699 St. 181; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Fessler, Ign. Aurelius Germany 1756–1839 ADB; Enc. Br.11 Feuardent, Francois France 1539–1610 Franciscan Ficino, Marsiglio Italy 1433–1499 Catholic St.A. 35b; J. Perles, Rev. Etudes Juives, 12, 244–57 Field, Frederick England 1801–1885 DNB Figueiro, Petrus ?Flanders fl. 1615 St. 182, Bodl. Cat. 981 Fitz–Gerald, Gerald Ireland fl. 1799 Heb. Grammar, Dublin 1799 Flavigny, Valérian de France d. 1674 NBU Floravanti, Gerónimo Italy 1554–1630 Jesuit Bibl. Comp. de Jèsus 3, 791 Fockens, Herman Fr. Th. Holland 1794–1868 NNBW 8, 552 Foecklerus, Jo. Holland fl. 1658 Heb. Grammar, Amsterdam, 1658 Fontanella, Franc. Italy fl. 1824 Heb. Lexicon, Venice, 1824 Foreiro, Francisco Portugal 1510–1581 Dominican NBU; Grande Enc. Port. e Brasil. 11 (1940), 623 Forster (Föster, Forsthemius, or Vorstheimer), Johann Switzerland 1496–1558 Lutheran Heb. Lexicon, Basle, 1557 Fourmont, Etienne (sen.) France 1683–1745 St. 183; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Fox, George England 1624–1691 Quaker DNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), 208 Franciscus, Maria ? ? Capuchin St. 183b, Nachtrag p.121 Franck, Sebastian Germany 1499–1542 St. 184; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Franke (Francus), Gregorius Germany fl. 1634 Heb. Lexicon, Hanover, 1634 Franz, Wolfgang Germany 1564–1628 Lutheran ADB Frey, Jo. Ludw. Switzerland 1682–1759 St. 185; ADB; NBU Freytag, Geo. Wilh. Friedr. Germany 1788–1861 ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Friedrichson, D. Germany fl. 1871 Heb. Grammar, Mainz, 1871 Frischlin, Nicodemus France (?)1547–1590 NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Frischmuth, Joh. Germany 1619–1687 Lutheran ADB; NBU Fritsch, Ernst Aug. Germany fl. 1838 Kritik of grammar, Frankfurt, 1838 Frommann(-us), Erhard Andr. Germany 1722–1774 Catholic (?) St. 186; ADB; NBU Fronmueller, Conrad Germany fl. 1679 St. 186 (bis) Fullenius, Bernardus Holland 1602–1657 NNBW 3, 426 Fuller, Nicholas England 1557(?)–1626 Anglican St. 187; DNB; NBU Gaffarel(lus), Jacques France 1601–1681 Catholic St. 188, Nachtrag p.121; NBU Gagnier, John France, England 1670(?)–1740 St. 189; DNB; NBU Galatinus, Petrus Columna Italy 1460–1540 Franciscan St. 190, Nachtrag p. 121 Galliccioli, Joh. Baptist (Austria), Italy 1733–1806 Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Garcia Blanco, Antonio Spain ? Garzias, Dominicus Spain fl. 1598 Catholic Gastabled, Franciscus, see Vatable, François Gataker, Thomas England 1574–1654 DNB; NBU Gaudia, Barthol. Valverdio Spain ? St. 192 Gaulmin, Gilbert France 1585–1665 Catholic St. 193; NBU Gebhard, Brandanus Heinr. Germany 1657–1729 Lutheran ADB Geitlin, Gabriel ? fl. 1856 Heb. Grammar, Helsingfors, 1856 Gejerus, Martin Germany 1614–1680 St. 194, Nachtrag p.121; ADB Gelbe, H. Germany ? Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1868 Génébrard, Gilbert France 1537–1597 Catholic St. 195, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1026, Add; NBU Gennaro, Sisti Italy fl. 1747 Heb. Grammar, Venice 1747 Gentius (Gentz), Georg (Germany), Holland 1618–1687 Lutheran St. 196, Nachtrag p.121; NNBW ix, 277; NBU Georgios, Chrysococca Greece 1340–1356 (?) St. A. 24, Heb. Übers 629 Gerard of Cremona Italy c. 1114–1187 Enc. Br.11   Hebraists, Christian Gerhard, Jo. Ernest G. Germany 1621–1668 Gerhard, Jo. G. Germany 1582–1637 Lutheran ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Germber, Hermann Germany fl. 1604 St. 197, Bodl. Cat. 1009; ADB Gerrans, R. England fl. 1784 St. 197 (with reservations) Gersdorff, Henrietta Kath. Friesen Germany 17th c. Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Gesenius, Fr. Heinr. Wilh. Germany 1786–1842 ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Geyer (Geier), Martin Germany 1614–1680 Lutheran St. 194; ADB Gezelius, Jo. Lithuania 1615–1690 NBU Gibelius, Abr. ? fl. 1603 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1603 Giggeius (Giggeo), Ant. Italy d. 1632 St. 198, Bodl. Cat. 1018; NBU Gill, John England 1697–1771 Baptist St. 199; DNB; NBU Giorgio (Zorzi), Francesco Italy 1460–1540 Franciscan Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude llustr., 173, 17 Giraud, l'Abbé France, Poland fl. 1825 Heb. Fr. Vocab., Vilna, 1825 Gireandeau, Bonar France fl. 1758–1778 Heb. Grammar & Lex., Paris, 1758, 1778 Giustiniani (Justinianus), Agostino Italy, France c. 1470–1536 Dominican Glaeser, Jos. Germany (?) fl. 1832 Heb. Grammar, Ratisbon, 1832 Glaire, Jean Baptiste France b. 1798 Heb. & Aramaic Grammar, Paris, 1832 Glass(-ius), Solomon Germany 1593–1656 Lutheran ADB; Enc. Br.11 Gleichgross, György Hungary 1669–1712 Lutheran Marm; Szin; Zov. Godwyn, Thomas England 1587–1642 Anglican DNB; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. vi (1912), 58 Goez, Georg ? ? Ugolini, 30, 1160 Goldhahn, Matth., see Aurogallus, Matth. Golius (Gohl), Jac. Holland 1596–1667 Calvinist NNBW; ADB; NBU Gomarus Holland 17th c. Prof. Groningen in 1630s Gousset (Gusset), Jacques France, Holland 1635–1704 Protestant NNBW; NBU Graf, Karl Heinr. Germany 1815–1869 Enc. Br.11 Grajal, Gaspar Spain 16th c. Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 26, 967 Granberg, Nic. Sweden fl. 1723 St. 357 (S.V. Schulten) Grapo (Grappius), Zach. Germany 1671–1713 Lutheran ADB; NBU Graser, Conrad Germany d. 1613 St. 200 Green, William England 1714(?)–1794 DNB Gregori, Greg. ? ? Lutheran Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 215, 18 Greissing, Bálint Hungary 1653–1701 Lutheran Marm; Szin; Zov. Greve (Greeve), Egbert van Holland 1754–1811 NBU Grey, Lady Jane England 1537–1554 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Grey, Richard England 1694–1771 DNB; NBU Groddeck, Gabr. Germany 1672–1709 St. 201, Bodl. Cat. 1022; NBU Groenewoud, Jacob Cornelis Swijghuisen Holland 1784–1859 Heb. Grammar, Utrecht, 1834 Groll, Adolf Hungary 1681–1743 Catholic Marm; Szin; Zov. Grotius (de Groot), Hugo Holland 1583–1645 Remonstrant NNBW; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Gualtperius, Otto Germany fl. 1590 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1590 Guarin, Pierre France 1678–1729 NBU Guevas, Aloysa Sigaea de Spain d. 1569 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69 Guidacerio(-ius), Agathius Italy 1477–1540 Catholic St. 202, Bodl. Cat. 1022; NBU Guise, William England 1653(?)–1683 St. 203, Bodl. Cat. 1022; DNB Gundissalinus (Gundisalvo, Gundu-salvi) Dominicus Spain fl. 1150 Enc. Univ. Euro-Americana 27, 323; J.T. Muckle, De Anima of D.G., Toronto, 1940   Hebraists, Christian Guertler, Nic. Germany, Holland 1653/4–1711 Calvinist NNBW 6, 654; ADB; NBU Guete, Heinr. Ernst Gusset, Jacques, see Gousset, Jacques Germany fl. 1782 Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1782 Guyenne, Madame de France c. 1625 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Gyarmathi, Samuel Hungary 1751–1830 Calvinist Venet., Zov. Gyarmazi, István Hungary 17th c. Calvinist Dan Gyles, J.F. England fl. 1814 Heb. Grammar, London, 1814–1816 Gyöngyösi de Heteny, Paul Hungary, Russia 1707–1769 Lutheran B.L.K. Oest. Haarbrccker, Theod. Germany 19th c. Continued (Halle, 1843) Schnurrer's Tanhum Yerushalmi on Judges. Haas (Hasse), Jo. Gottfried Germany 1737–1815 ADB; NBU Habeler, Jakab Hungary 1722–1793 Catholic Marm; Szin Habermann (Avenarius), Johannes Germany 1520–1590 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1562; Neu. Deutch. Biogr. 1, 467 Habert, Susanna France d. 1633 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Hackspan, Theodoric Germany 1607–1659 St. 204, Bodl. Cat. 1025; ADB; NBU Haener, Joh. Henr. ? 1682–1701 Lutheran Br. Mus. Cat. Halenius, Engelbert Sweden 1700–1767 St. 205, Bodl. Cat. 1877; no. 45; Svensk Haller, Albrecht von Switzerland 1708–1777 St. 206; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Hamaker, Hendrik Arent Holland 1789–1835 NNBW; NBU Hambraeus, Jonas Sweden, France 1588–1671 Svensk; NBU Hamelsveld, Ysbrand van Holland 1743–1812 NBU Hamius, Jac. Germany fl. 1624 Heb. Grammar, Hamburg 1624 Hanel, Melchior Bohemia fl. 1661 St. 207; Bodl. Cat. 796 Haner, György Hungary 1672–1740 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Pap. Hanewinkel, Gerhardus Germany fl. 1636 Heb. Grammar, Bremen, 1636 Hanne(c)ken, Meno (Memnon) Germany 1595–1671 St. 208; ADB Hannes, Edward England d. 1710 DNB Happelius, Wigand Switzerland fl. 1561 Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1561 Harding, John England d. 1610 Foster Harding, Stephen England, France 1060(?)–1134 Cistercian Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. 17(1953) 233; DNB; NBU Hardt, Anton Jul. van der Germany 1707–1785 St. 209, Bodl. Cat. 1094 Hardt, Hermann van der Germany 1660–1746 Lutheran St. 210, Bodl. Cat. 1032; ADB; NBU Hare, Francis England 1671–1740 Anglican DNB; NBU Harrison, Thomas England 1555–1631 DNB Harrison, Thomas England 1716–1753 Venn Hart, John England ? C. Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 7 (1966), 244 Hartmann, Ant. Theodor Germany 1774–1838 Protestant St. 213, Nachtrag p.121; ADB; NBU Hartmann, Joh. Melchior Germany 1764–1827 ADB; NBU Hartmann, Jo. Phil. Germany fl. 1708 St. 211 Hase, Christ. Gottfr. Germany fl. 1750 Heb. Linguistic Study, Halle, 1750 Haselbauer, Franz Austria 1677–1756 Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Hasse, Jo. Gottfried, see Haas, Jo. Gottfried Hautecourt, Hen. Philipponneau de France, Holland 1646–1715 Huguenot NNBW Havemann, Christoph. Germany 17th c. St. 214   Hebraists, Christian Havemann, Michael Germany 1597–1672 Lutheran ADB Hebenstreit, Joh. Chr. Germany 1686–1756 Protestant St. 215, Bodl. Cat. 1033; NBU Hedmann, Cl. Sweden 18th c. St. 216, Bodl. Cat. 682 Heeser, Johann. ? Germany fl. 1716 Heb. & Chald. Lex., Harderov, 1716 Heidegger, Joh. Heinr. Switzerland 1633–1698 Reformed Ch. ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Heilbronn, Anna Hungary 18th c. Calvinist Marm; Szin. Heinsius (Heinzs), Dan Flanders, Holland 1580(?)–1655 Reformed Ch. NNBW; B.N. Belg.; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Helen, John England d. 1839 inf. from C. Roth; his Modern Judaism untraced; Gentleman's Magazine Hellmann, Laur. Sweden 18th c. St. 137, Bodl. Cat. 1877 Helman, Andr. Sweden 18th c. St. 357 (sv. Schulten) Helmont, Joh. Baptist van Holland 1577–1644 Protestant (untraced) Helner, Samuel Hungary 18th c. Calvinist St. 243, Bodl. Cat. 1582; Marm; Szin. Heltai, Gáspár Hungary 1520–1574 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Erzsébet Székely, H.G., Budapest, 1957 Helvicus, Christophorus Germany 1581–1616 Lutheran Helwig (Helvicus) Germany 1581–1617 Lutheran St. 220, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1038; ADB Hempel, Ernst Wilh. Germany fl. 1776 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1776 Henry of Hessen (Langenstein) Germany 1340–1397 NBU Hepburn, (Jas.) Bonaventura Scotland, Italy 1573–1620 Minim St. 221, Bodl. Cat. 1382; DNB; NBU Hertel, W. Chr. Austria fl. 1735 Heb. Grammar, Gratz, 1735 Hesse, Anna Sophia von Germany fl. 1658 Catholic Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 66 Hetzel (Hezel), Joh. Wilh. Friedr. Germany 1754–1829 NBU Heyman, Johannes Holland 18th c. Hiller(-us), Matth. Germany 1646–1725 Protestant ADB; NBU Hilliger, Joh. Wilh. Germany 1667–1701 Lutheran Br. Mus. Cat. Hilpert, Jo. Germany fl. 1651 St. 222, Bodl. Cat. 1875 Hilvai, János Hungary 1720(?)–1769 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Hincks, Edward Ireland 1792–1866 DNB Hinkelmann, Abr. Germany 1652–1695 St. 223; ADB; NBU Hinlopen, Jelmer Holland 18th c. NNBW 8, 777 Hirth (Hirtius), Joh. Friedr. Germany 1719–1784 St. 224, Bodl. Cat. 1043; ADB; NBU Hochstet(t)er, Andreas Adam Germany 1668–1717 Protestant St. 225; ADB Hody, Humphrey England 1659–1707 DNB; NBU Hoffmann, Jo. Ge. Germany fl. 1767 Heb. Grammar, Giessen, 1767 Holland, Thomas England d. 1612 DNB; C. Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 6 (1966), 245 Hollenberg, W. Germany fl. 1861 Heb. Grammar, Berlin 1861 Holten, Albert Germany fl. 1675 St. 226 Hombergk, Joh. Friedr. Germany 1673–1748 Reformed Ch. ADB Hommel, Karl Ferd. Germany 1722–1781 St. 227, Bodl. Cat. 1046; ADB; NBU Honert, Taco Hajo van den Holland 1666–1740 NNBW Honorius Scotland fl. 1452 Cistercian (?) St. A. 27 Hooght, Everardus van der Holland fl. 1686 Heb. Grammar, Amsterdam 1686 Hoornbeck, Joh. Holland 1617–1666 Dutch Ref. NNBW; ADB Horche, Heinr. Germany 1652–1729 Separatist ADB Horne, Robert England 1519(?)–1580 DNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), 206   Hebraists, Christian Hottinger, Joh. Heinr. Switzerland 1620–1667 Swiss Ref. St. 228, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1038; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Hottinger, Joh. Heinr. II Germany 1681–1750 Swiss Ref. St. 229, Bodl. Cat. 1048; ADB; NBU Hottinger, Joh. Jakob Switzerland 1652–1735 Houbigant(-ius), Chas. Franc. France 1686–1783 NBU Houting, Hendrik Holland fl. 1695 Calvinist St. 230, Bodl. Cat. 1048 Hrabski, János Hungary 1625–1678 Calvinist Szin; Zov. Hubschmann, I. Matth. Germany fl. 1751 Heb. Grammar (Geschwinder Hebraer), Eisenach, 1751 Huerga, Cipriano de la Spain ? Colomils, Ital. et Hisp. Orientalis, index (only). Huet, Pierre Daniel France 1630–1721 Jesuit NBU; Enc. Br.11 Hufnagel, G.F. Germany fl. 1795 St. 231, Bodl. Cat. 2720, Add. 1049 Hugh of St. Cher France 1200(?)–1263 Dominican Enc. Br.11; Smalley, Study of Bible in M. Ages2, 398 Hugh of St. Victor Flanders, France 1078(?)–1141 Victorine NBU; Enc. Br.11; Smalley, op. cit., 398 Hugo Insulanus, T. St. 232 Huldrich(-icus), Joh. Jac. Switzerland 1683–1731 St. 233, Bodl. Cat. 1049; NBU Hulse(-ius), Ant. Holland 1615–1685 Calvinist St. 234, Bodl. Cat. 1049; NNBW Hulsius, Paul Holland 1653–1712 Dutch Ref. NNBW Hunt, Thomas England 1696–1774 DNB; NBU Hupfeld, Hermann Chr. Karl Friedr. Germany 1796–1866 ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Huré (Hureus), Car. France 1639–1717 Jansenist NBU Husen, Franc. van Holland fl. 1676 St. 235, Bodl. Cat. 1050 Hussgen, Johannes, see Oecolampadius, Johannes Huszi, György Hungary 1710–1768 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Hutter(-us), Elias Germany 1553–1607(?) ADB Hyde (H(e)ydius), Thomas England 1636–1703 St. 236, Bodl. Cat. 1050; DNB; NBU; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., Index Iken(ius), Conrad Germany 1689–1753 St. 237, Bodl. Cat. 1054; ADB; NBU Imbonati(-tus), Carlo Guiseppe Italy 1650(?)–1696 Cistercian St. 238, Bodl. Cat. 1052; NBU Jacobi, J. Ad. Germany fl. 1797 Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1797 Jacob(s)(-bius), Henry England 1608–1652 St. 239; Foster Jahn, Joh. Austria 1750–1816 ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Janvier (Januarius), René France 1613–1682 Benedictine St. 240, Bodl. Cat. 1249; NBU Jarrett, Thomas England 1805–1882 DNB Jean François de Binans, see Binans, Jean François de Jehne, Lebr. H.S. Germany fl. 1790 Heb. Grammar, Altona, 1790 Jenei, György Hungary 17th c. Calvinist Dan Jennings, David England 1691–1762 Dissenter DNB; NBU Jetzius, Paul Germany fl. 1729 Heb. Grammar, Stettin, 1729 Jiménez de Cisneros, Francisco, see Ximénez de Cisneros, Francisco Johannes Luccae Italy fl. 1406 St. A. 31, 254, Nachtrag p. 87, Heb. Bibliog. xv, 39; Z.D.M.G. 25, 404 Johannson, Th. Carl Denmark fl. 1835 Heb. Grammar, Copehagen, 1835 Jones, William England 1746–1794 DNB; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Jong, P. de Holland 1832–1890 NNBW 1, 1227 Jud(ä), Leo Germany, Switzerland 1482–1542 Reformer ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Junius (Du Jon), Franc. France, Holland 1545–1602 Huguenot NNBW Jurieu, Pierre France, Holland 1639–1713 Huguenot NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Justinianus, Aug., see Giustiniani, Agostino Juynboll, Dietrich Will. (Joh.?) van Holland 1802–1861 NNBW Kalau, Abr., see Calov(ius), Abr. Kallai, Kopis János Hungary 1645–1681 Calvinist Zov; Dan Kalmár, György Hungary 1726–178? Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov; Pap. Kals, Joh. Guil. Holland b. 1702 NNBW Kalthoff, J.A. Germany fl. 1837 Heb. Grammar, Ratisbon, 1837 Kamarási, Pal Hungary 1693–1735 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Pap. Kampen, Jan van, see Campen(-sis), Jan van Kaposi, Samuel Hungary 1660–1713 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Károlyi, Gáspár Hungary 1529–1592 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov; K.G. Budapest, 1958 Kaszaniczky, Ádám (de Nagy Selmecz) Hungary 1748–1804 Catholic Marm; Szin Katona Gelei, István Hungary 1589–1649 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov; Károly Brassay, G.K.I. Hajdunanas, 1903 Kehe, G.J. Russia ? Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 264, 23 Kekkermannus, Balth. Germany fl. 1625 Heb. Grammar, Hanau, 1625 Keller, Gottl. Wilh. Germany 17th c. St. 243, Bold. Cat. 1582 Kelp, Márton Hungary, (Germany?) 1659–1694 Szin; Zov; ADB Kemink, H.H. Holland 1817–1861 NNBW 3, 676 Kemmel, János Hungary 1636–1685 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Dan Kennicott, Benjamin England 1718–1783 DNB; NBU Keresztes, Jószef Hungary 1846–1888 Calvinist Szin; Zov. Keresztesi, Pál Hungary 1711–1734 Calvinist Marm; Szin. Kereszturi, Bálint Hungary 1634–1680 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Kern, Mihály Hungary 1731–1795 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Kerssenbroich, Hermanus Germany fl. 1560 Heb. Grammar, Cologne, 1560 Kesler (Chesselius, Ahenarius), Joh. Conrad Switzerland 1502–1574 Lutheran Ugolini 28, 766; Enc. Rel Kn. Keyworth, Thomas England 1782–1852 DNB Kiber, David, see Kyber, David Kihn, H. Germany fl. 1885 Heb. Grammar (with D. Shilling), Freiburg, 1885 Kilbye, Richard England 1561(?)–1620 DNB; NBU King, Geoffrey England c.1567–1630 Venn Kingsmill, Thos. Reg. England fl. 1605 DNB Kircher, Athanasius Germany, France, Italy 1602–1680 Jesuit St. 244, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1584; ADB; NBU Kirschner, Conrad, see Pellicanus, Conrad Kismarjai Weszelin, PFl Hungary 1600–1645 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Pap; Dan Klai, Joh., see Clajus, Johannes Klemm, Jac. Friedr. Germany fl. 1783 Heb. Grammar, Tübingen, 1783 Klemm, Joh. Christ. Germany fl. 1745 Heb. Lex., Tübingen, 1745 Kloppenburgh, Joh. Holland 1592–1652 NNBW; NBU Knipe, Thomas England 1638–1711 DNB Knollys, Manserd England 1599(?)–1691 Baptist DNB   Hebraists, Christian Knorr von Rosenroth, Christian Germany 1636–1689 Lutheran St. 245, Bodl. Cat. 1586; ADB; NBU Knowlles, Richard England fl. 1600 Grk. & Heb. Grammar, London, 1600 Koch, Friedr. Christ. Germany fl. 1740 Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1740 Koch (Cocceius), Johannes Holland 1603–1669 Calvinist St. 149, Bodl. Cat. 847; NNBW; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Kochhaff, David, see Chytraeus, David Kocsi Csergö, István Hungary 1700–1726 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Kocsi Major, Ferenc Hungary 1680–1743 Calvinist Marm; Szin Kocsi Sebestyén, István Hungary 1761–1841 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Koecher, Herm. Friedr. Germany fl. 1783 St. 246, Bodl. Cat. 1586 Koenig, Gu. Germany fl. 1847 St. 348 Koenig, Sam. Switzerland 1670–1750 St. 248, 332, Bodl. Cat. 245–6 Koepfel, Wolfgang Fabricius, see Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius Koeppen, Nic. Germany fl. 1709 St. 249, Bodl. Cat. 2372 Koeppen, Nic. ? fl. 1720–1730 Lutheran St. 249 Köleséri, Samuel Hungary 1634–1683 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Komáromi, Csipkes György Hungary 1628–1678 Calvinist Károlyi Gáspár, K.C.G. Budapest, 1940 Koolhaas, Jo. Christoph. Germany fl. 1670 Heb. Grammar, Coburg, 1670 Koolhaas, Willem Holland 1709–1773 Br. Mus. Cat. Körösi, Mihály Hungary 1706–1775 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Körösi, Uri János Hungary 1724–1796 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov.; I. Goldziher, K.U.J., Budapest, 1908 Kosegarten, Joh. Gottfr. Ludw. Germany 1792–1860 St. 250, Bodl. Cat. 720; ADB; NBU Krafft, Karl Germany fl. 1839 St. 251, Bodl. Cat. 1589 Kraut, Paul Sweden fl. 1703 St. 252 Kromayer, Jo. Germany 1576–1643 NBU Kuemmel, Caspar Germany fl. 1688 Heb. Grammar, Würtzburg, 1688 Kyber (Kiber), David Alsace 16th c. St. 253, Bodl. Cat. 1950 Kypke, Georg David Germany 1724–1779 NBU Lakemacher, Joh. Gottf. Germany 1695–1736 St. 254, Bodl. Cat. 1593 Lamy, Bernhard France 1646–1715 Catholic Ugolini 32, 572; Enc. Rel. Kn. Landrianij, Ignazió Italy 1579–1642 Catholic Lang, Kristóf Hungary 164?–170? Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Lange, J. Christian Germany 1669(?)–1756 Lutheran St. 255, Bodl. Cat. 1596; ADB; NBU Lange(-ius), W. Germany, Italy fl. 1710 St. 256, Bodl. Cat. 1596 Langenes, Henr. Holland fl. 1720 St. 257, Bodl. Cat. 1887 Langenstein, Heinr. von, see Henry of Hessen Langier, Jo. Jac ? ? St. 258 Lapide, Cornelius B (van den Steen) Flanders 1566–1637 Jesuit B.N. Belg; Enc. Br.11 Laskai, Matko János Hungary 1605–1663 Calvinist Szin; Dan Latouche, Auguste France fl. 1836 Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1836 Laurence, Richard England 1760–1838 DNB L'Avocat, Jean Bapt. France fl. 1755 Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1755 Layfield, John England d. 1617 DNB Lazzarelli, Lodovico Italy 1450–1500 Le Clerc, Jean Thomas, see Clerc, Jean Thomas Lederlin, Joh. Heinr. Alsace 1672–1737 St. 259; ADB; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Lee, Edward England 1482(?)–1544 DNB; NBU; F. Perez Castro, Alfonso de Zamora, 1vii Lee, Samuel England 1625–1691 Puritan DNB Lee, Samuel England 1783–1852 DNB; NBU Le Fèvre (Fabèr Boderianus) de la Boderie, Guy France, Flanders 1541–1598 Catholic NBU; Colomiès, Gallia Orient.; F. Secret, Le Zôhar chez… chrétiens, 139 Le Fèvre de la Boderie, Nicolas France, Flanders 1550–1613 Catholic F. Secret, ibid. Lefèvre d'Etaples (Faber Stapulensis), Jacques France 1455(?)–1537(?) Evangelical NBU; Enc. Br.11 Lehmann, Ge. Heinr. Germany 1619–1699 St. 259b, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 233 Leib, Chilian Germany 1471–1548 St. 260, Berlin Cat. i, 53, ii, v (MS 77) Leigh, Edward England 1602–1671 Puritan DNB; NBU LeLong, Jac. France 1665–1721 St. 261, Bodl. Cat. 1599, Addenda; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Lemoine, Henry England 1766–1812 DNB L'Empereur, Constantin van Oppyck Holland 1591–1648 St. 174, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 971 NNBW 8, 1031; ADB (S.V. Emp.) Lent, Joh. B Germany fl. late 17th c. Reformed Ch. Ugolini 23, 1020 Lenz, Jo. Leonh. Germany fl. 1700 St. 262 Leo, Christopher England fl. 1836 Heb. Grammar, Cambridge, 1836 León, Andrés, see Zamora, Andreas de León Leön, Luis de Spain 1527–1591 Catholic NBU; Enc. Br.11 Leopold, Em. Friedr. Germany fl. 1832 Heb. & Chald. Grammar, Leipzig, 1832 Lepusculus, Sebastian Switzerland 1501–1576 St. 263, Bodl. Cat. 1604 Le Tartrier, Adrien France fl. 1586 Lethenyei, János Hungary 1723–1804 Catholic Marm; Szin. Lette, G.J. Holland 1724–1760 NNBW 10, 515 Leusden, Joh. Holland 1624–1699 Calvinist St. 264, Leiden Cat. 3; NNBW 9, 601; NBU Lewis, Thomas England 1689–1749 (?) DNB Leydekker (Leid-), Melchior Holland 1642–1721/2 Calvinist St. 265, Bodl. Cat. 1622; NNBW; NBU Liebentanz, Mich. Germany before 1701 Lutheran Ugolini 7, 1034 Lightfoot, John England 1602–1675 St. 266; DNB; NBU Lindberg, Jac. Christian Denmark b. 1797 Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1822; NBU Lippomani, Marco Italy fl. 1440 St. A. 33, Heb. Übers. 320 A. 411; MS Bodl. Neubauer 2174 Lischovini, János Hungary 166?–172? Calvinist Marm; Szin. Lisznyai, K. Pál Hungary 1630–1695 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Lively, Edward England 1545(?)–1605 DNB; E. Rosenthal, Essays…S.A. Cook (ed. D.W. Thomas), 1950 Lizel, Geo. Germany 1694–1761 Heb. Grammar, Speyer, 1739; ADB Lloyd, Henry England 1795–1831 Venn Loescher, Valentin Ernst Germany 1672/3–1749 Lutheran ADB; NBU Loeser, Margaret Sybilla, see Einsiedel, Margaret Sybilla Losa, Isabella Spain 1491–1564 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Loscan, Joh. Friedr. Germany fl. 1710 St. 266a   Hebraists, Christian Losius, Joh. Justus ? 18th c. St. 267, Bodl. Cat. 675 Losontzi Hányoki, István Hungary 1709–1780 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Louis de Valois, of Alais France fl. 1646 F. Secret, Rev. Et. Juives 126 (1967), 423 Louise Amoena Germany 17th c. Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Lowndes, Is. ? fl. 1837 Heb. Grammar in Greek, Malta, 1837 Lowth (Louth), Robert England 1710–1787 DNB; NBU Lucca, John of, see Johannes Luccae Lucrecius, see Widmanstetter, Johann Albrecht Ludolf, Susanna Magdalena Germany fl. 1700 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Ludovicus Sancti Francisci, see São Francisco, Luiz de Ludwig (Ludovicus,-ci), Christ. L. Germany 1663–1732 St. 268, Bodl. Cat. 1632 Lull(-ius) (Lully), Raimon Spain 1235(?)–1315 St. A. 33, Hebr. Übers. 475; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Lund, David Sweden 1666–1747 Lutheran St. 269, Bodl. Cat. 274; NBU Lund, John Denmark 1638–1684 Lutheran ADB Luther, Martin Germany 1483–1546 Reformer ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Lyre (Lyra), Nicholas de, see Nicholas de Lyre (Lyranus) McCaul, Alexander Ireland, England c. 1799–1863 Anglican St. 270, Bodl. Cat. 871, 1844; DNB Macha, Joh. Austria 1798–1845 (?) Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Mádi, János Hungary 1705–1772 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Madrigal, Alfonso Tostado, see Tostado, Alfonso de Madrigal Magnus, György Hungary 1645–171? Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Mai, Joh. Heinr. (jun.) Germany 1688–1732 St. 271, Hamburg Cat. vi Major, József Hungary 1739–1790 Lutheran Szin. Makai, Gergely Hungary 17th c. Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov. Malamina, Caesar Italy fl. 1774 St. 272 (+293 suppl.) Maldonado, Juan de Spain 1533–1583 Jesuit Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 32, 498 Mall, Sebastian Germany fl. 1808 Heb. Grammar, Landshut, 1808 Manetti, Gianozzo Italy 1396–1459 St. A. 35, Nachtrag p. 87; NBU Manfred Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily Italy 1233–1266 St. A. 34, Heb. Übers, 268; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Manger, Samuel Hendrik Holland 1735–1791 NNBW 9, 644 Manjacoria, Nicholas Italy fl. 1145 Cistercian R. Loewe, Cambr. Hist. of Bible, ii, ed. G. Lampe, 1969, 144 f. Mansperger, Joseph Julian Austria 1724–1788 Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Mara (Mare), William de (la) England, France fl. 1280 Franciscan DNB; R. Loewe, op. cit., 149f. Marchina, Maria Italy d. 1646 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Marck, Joh. van Holland 1655/6–1731 Calvinist NNBW Maria Eleonore, wife of Ludwig Philipp of Pfalz Germany fl. 1669 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Maria Elizabeth, daughter of Christian Albrecht Germany (?)1680–1741 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 +B.N. Belg. (M.E. Theresa Josephine) Mariana, Juan de Spain 1536–1624 Jesuit NBU; Enc. Br.11 Marini, Marco Italy 1541–1594 Augustinian St. 273 Marlorat(-us) du Pasquier, Augustin France c. 1506–1562 (? 3) Reformer, (Calvinist) NBU Marperger, Bernhard W. Germany 1682–1746 Lutheran ADB Marsham, John England 1602–1685 DNB; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Marsilius Ficinus, see Ficino, Marsiglio Marti, Benedictus, see Aretius, Benedictus Martinet, A. Germany fl. 1873 Heb. Grammar (with G. Rigeler), Bamberg, 1873 Martinez, Martinus France fl. 1548 Heb. & Aramaic Grammar, Paris, 1548 Martinez Cantalapiedra, Martin Spain ? untraced Martini, Christoph. Sam. ? Germany ? Lutheran Meuschen, Novum Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 212, 18 Martini, Jo. Benjamin Germany fl. 1710 Meuschen, 266, 25; Br. Mus. Cat. Martini, Raimundo (Raymond) Spain d. 1282 Dominican Martinius, Petrus France fl. 1568 Protestant Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1568 Martinus, Dirck (Theodoricus) Martens Flanders fl. c. 1520 Heb. Lex., Louvain, c.1520 Mártonfalvi, Tóth György Hungary 1635–1681 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan. Martyr, Peter (Pietro Martire Vermigli) Italy, Alsace, England, Switzerland 1500–1562 Augustinian, turned Reformer DNB; NBU Masclefius, Franc. France 1662–1728 NBU Masius (Maes), Andreas Flanders, Italy 1514/5–1573 (nominal) Catholic B.N. Belg.; ADB Matthias Aquarius ? fl. 1581 St. 274, Nachtrag p. 121 Matthias, Elias Germanus Germany ? St. 275; Monats. Gesch. u. Wiss. Jud., 1895/6, 280 Maurer, Fr. J.V.D. Germany fl. 1851 Heb. & Chal. Lex., Stuttgart, 1851 Mayr, George Germany 1565–1623 NBU; Heb. Grammar, Ausburg, 1616 Medgyesi, PFl Hungary 1605–1663 Calvinist Venet.; Szin; Zov; Dan Meelfuehrer Joh. M. Germany 1570–1640 St. 276, Nachtrag p.122; D. Kaufmann Mem. Vol., 462 Meetkerke, Edward England 1590–1657 DNB Megerlin, David Fr. Germany d. 1778 St. 277 Meier, Ernst Hein. Germany 1813–1866 Heb. Lex. Mannheim, 1845 Meinhart, Geo. Friedr. Germany 1651–1718 Lutheran Ugolini, 23, 812 Meinigius, Christ. Gottl. Germany fl. 1712 Heb. Lex., Leipzig, 1712 Melanchthon (Schwarzerd), Philipp Germany 1497–1560 Reformer Melchior, Alb. Wilh. Germany 1685–1738 NNBW Melchior, Joh. Germany 1646–1689 ADB Melius, Juhász Péter Hungary 1536–1572 Calvinist Kohn; Marm; Szin; Zov. Mellissander, Casparus Flanders fl. 1586 Heb. Grammar, Antwerp, 1586 Menochio, Giovanni Stefano Italy 1575/6–1655 Jesuit NBU Menschen, Gerhard, see Meuschen, Gerhard Mercer (Mercerus), Jean France d. 1570 St. 278, Bodl. Cat. 1748; NBU Metcalfe, Robert England 1590(?)–1652 DNB Metzlar Holland 19th c. untraced Meuschen (Menschen, Musculus), Gerhard Germany 1680–1743 NBU Meyer (Meier), Joh. Holland (?)1651–1725 (?) Calvinist St. 279, Bodl. Cat. 1753; NNBW Meyer (Mayer), Joh. Fr. Germany 1650–1712 Lutheran ADB; Ugolini, 1, 378, 23, 792 Michaelis, Joh. David Germany 1717–1791 ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Michaelis, Joh. Heinr. Germany 1668–1738 St. 280; ADB; NBU Midhorp, Joh. ? fl. 1562 St. 281, Bodl. Cat. 552 (no. 3562a) Mieg, Joh. Fried. Germany 1642–1691 (?) St. 282; Rev. Et. Juives 20, 266; ADB Mill, David Holland 1692–1756 Calvinist St. 283, Bodl. Cat. 1756; NNBW   Hebraists, Christian Mill, Joh. England 1645–1707 DNB; NBU; Ugolini 6, 1145 Mill, William Hodge England 1792–1853 DNB Milner, John England 1628–1702 Non-juror DNB; NBU Milton, John England 1608–1674 Puritan DNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), 213 Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della Italy 1463–1494 Misztótfalusi, Kis Miklós Hungary 1650–1702 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov; Zador Tordai, M.K.M., Budapest, 1965 Mitternacht, Jo. Seb. Germany fl. 1645 Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1645 Moeller, Helena Sybilla Wagenseil Germany fl. 1700 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69 Molinaea, Maria ? 17th c. Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Molitor, Christoph. Germany fl. 1659 St. 285 Moller, Daniel Germany, Hungary 1642–1712 Calvinist Marm; Szin; NBU; ADB Molnar, János Hungary 1757–1819 Calvinist Venet; Szin; Zov. Molza–Porrino, Tarquinia Italy (?)1542–1617 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68; NBU Montagnana, Petrus Italy fl. 1478 St. A. 40 Montaldi, Jos. Italy fl. 1789 Heb. & Chald. Lex., Rome, 1789 Montano, Benito Arias, see Arias Montano, Benito Montfalcon(-ius), Bern. de France, Italy 1655–1741 St. 286, Bodl. Cat. 1758; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Moonen, Arnold Holland 1644–1711 Reformed Ch. NNBW More, Alexander Scotland 1616–1670 Calvinist DNB; NBU Moré, Eugéne France fl. 1837 More, Henry England 1614–1687 St. 288, Bodl. Cat. 2804, no. 6409b; DNB; NBU Morgan, Robert England 1665–1745 S. Levy, Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. Misc. 4 (1942) Morgan, William Wales 1540(?)–1604 DNB Morin, Jean France 1591–1659 Protestant, converted to Catholicism St. 287; NBU Morini, Stephanus France, Holland 1624/5–1700 Catholic (?) NNBW 10, 651; NBU Mornay, Philippe de (Du Plessis–Mornay) France 1549–1623 Huguenot NBU; NNBW; Enc. Br.11 Moser, Ph. N. Germany fl. 1795 Heb. & Chald. Lex., Ulm, 795 Mosheim, Joh. Lorenz von Germany c. 1694–1755 Lutheran ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Mott, John England fl. 1740 ?=J.M. (Thurston, 1699-1776); Venn Moyne, Etienne le France, Holland 1624–1689 Huguenot NNBW 10, 634 Mudge, Zachary England 1694–1769 DNB Muenden, Christian Germany 1684–1741 ADB Muenster, Sebastian Germany, Switzerland 1489–1552 Franciscan, turned Lutheran St. 292, Nachtrag p.122, Bodl. Cat. 2012 f; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Muhl, Jos. Germany ? St. 290 Muhle(-ius), Hein. Germany 1666–1730/2 Lutheran St. 289, Bodl. Cat. 2004; ADB Muis, Simon Marotte de France 1587–1644 St. 291, Bodl. Cat. 2009; NBU Muller, August Germany fl. 1878 Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1878 Muller, Joh. Mart. Germany 1722–1781 Lutheran ADB; NBU Muller, Ludw. Christian Germany 1734–1804 (?) ADB; NBU; Heb. Grammar in Danish, Copenhagen, 1834 Muntinge, Herman Holland 1752–1824 NNBW Murner, Thomas Alsace 1475–1537 (?) Franciscan St. 293, Bodl. Cat. 2017; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Musculus, see Meuschen, Gerhard Myerlin, David Fr. Germany d. 1778 untraced Mylius, Andreas Germany fl. 1639 Heb. Syntax, Königsberg, 1639   Hebraists, Christian N. (G.N.), see Norwich, William Naegelsbach, Carl W.E. Germany (?)1806–1859 ADB; Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1856. Nagel, Joh. Andr. Mich. Germany 1710–1788 St. 295, Nachtrag p. 122, Bodl. Cat. 2030; ADB Nagy, János Hungary 19th c. Calvinist Szin. Nánási, Lovász József Hungary 1701–1757 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov; Dan Neale (Nelus), Thomas England 1519–1590 (?) St. 296; Bodl. Cat. 2059; DNB Neander, Conradus Burgens. Germany fl. 1589 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1589 Nebrija, Antonio de Spain 15th–16th c. B. Hall, in Studies in Church Hist. 5 (ed. G.J. Cuming), 1969, 125, 134 Neckam (Nequam), Alexander England, France 1157–1217 Benedictine Loewe, Med. & Renaissance St., 4, 1958, 17f. Nerrelter, David Germany fl. 1700 Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 221, 18 Newcome, Henry Ireland, England 1729–1800 DNB; NBU Newton, James William England fl. 1808 Heb. Grammar, London, 1808 Nicholas de Lyre (Lyranus) France (?)1270–1340 Franciscan Nicholas of Manjacoria, see Manjacoria, Nicholas Nicholson, I. England fl. 1836 tr. Ewald's Heb. Grammar, London, 1836 Nicolai, Jo. Fried. Germany 1639–1683 ADB Nifanius, Christian Germany 1629–1689 Lutheran ADB Niger (Nigri), Peter, see Schwarz, Peter Niger, Radulphus England 13th c. St. A. 46 Niloe, Jac. ? ? Reformed Ch. Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 252, 19 Noble, James Nolde, Christian Denmark, Holland fl. 1650–1680 Lutheran Meuschen, op. cit. 202, 18 Norberg, Olav Sweden fl. 1708 St. 269, Bodl. Cat. 2372 Norrellius, Andr. Sweden 1677–1749 St. 298, Bodl. Cat. 2804; Svensk Norwich, William (=G.N.) England d. 1675 St. 294, Bodl. Cat. 1875, no. 28 Novarini, Aloysius Italy 1594–1650 NBU Novenianus, Phil. Germany (?), France fl. 1520 St. 299; Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1520 Oberleitner, Franz Xavier Austria 1789–1832 Benedictine B.L.K. Oest. O'Byrne England c. 1800 "Prof." Heb., Swansea Occitanus, Andreas Real, see Realis Occitanus, Andreas Ockley, Simon England 1678–1720 DNB; NBU Odhelius, Laur. Sweden (?)1664–1721 (?) St. 300 Oecolampadius (Hussgen, Husschein) Johannes Switzerland 1482–1531 Reformer Offerhaus, Christiaan Gerhard Holland 18th c. untraced Offredus, Ludovica Saracena France fl. 1606 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69 Olearius (Oelschlaeger), Gothofred Germany 1604/5–1685 Lutheran ADB; NBU Olearius (Oelschlaeger), Johannes Germany 1546–1623 Lutheran ADB Olshausen, Justus Germany 1800–1882 ADB Onderliczka, János Hungary 18th c. Calvinist Marm; Szin. Opfergeld, Friedr. Germany 1668–1746 St. 301, Bodl. Cat. 2078; ADB Opitz, Heinr. Germany 1642–1712 Lutheran ADB; NBU Opitz, Joshua Heinr. Germany 1542–1585 Lutheran Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 18, 15; ADB Opitz (Opitius), Paul Friedr. Germany 1684–1745 St. 302; ADB; NBU Orchell, Francisco Spain ? untraced   Hebraists, Christian Osborn, William England fl. 1845 Heb. Lex., London, 1845 Osiander, Luc. Germany 1534–1604 ADB; Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1569 Osterbröck, Aggaeus ? ? St. 303 Otho (Otto), Joh. Heinr. Switzerland d. 1719 St. 304, Bodl. Cat. 2080 Otrokócsi, Fóris Ferenc Hungary 1648–1718 Catholic Venet.; Szin; Zov; Pap; Ferenc Fallenbuechl O.F.F., Esztergom, 1899 Otto, Gottlieb Germany fl. 1788 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1788 Ouatablé, Franciscus, see Vatable, François Ouseel (Oisel, Loisel), Phil. Germany 1671–1724 St. 305; NBU Outhuijs, Gerrit Holland fl. 1822 trs. J. Lelong on Polyglot Outram (Owtram), William England 1626–1679 DNB Outrein, Johan. d' Holland 1662–1722 NNBW Overall, John England 1560–1619 DNB Owmann, Mart. Jac. Germany fl. 1705 St. 306 Paggi, Angiolo Italy fl. 1863 Heb. Grammar, Florence, 1863 Pagnini(-nus, -no), Santes (Xanctes) Italy, France c.1470–1536 Dominican St. 307; NBU Palkovic, Georg Austria 1769–1850 Lutheran B.L.K. Oest. Palm, Joh. Henricus van der Holland 1763–1840 NNBW Palmroot, Johan. Sweden 1659–1728 St. 308, Bodl. Cat. 2083; Svensk Pareau, Jean Henri Holland 1761–1833 NNBW Parkhurst, John England 1728–1797 DNB; NBU Parschitius, Daniel Germany fl. 1662 Heb. Grammar, Rostock, 1662 Pasini(-nus), Giuseppe Luca Italy 1687–1770 St. 309; NBU Pasor, Matthias Holland, England 1599–1658 NNBW; DNB; ADB; NBU Pastritius, Joh. ? ? St. 310 Pataki, István Hungary 1640–1693 Calvinist Szin; Dan. Patzschius, H.D. Germany fl. 1778 Heb. Grammar, Lcneburg, 1778 Paul (Paolo) Sicily fl. 1475 Dominican? St. after 310, Nachtrag, p. 87 Paulinus, Simon Sweden (?) fl. 1692 Heb. Grammar, Abo, 1692 Pause, Jean de la, see Plantavit(ius) de la Pause, Jean Péchi, Simon Hungary c.1565–1642 Sabbatarian (Unitarian) Pedro, Dom, Emperor of Brazil Portugal I 1798–1834 NBU; Enc. Br.11 II 1825–1891 Pellican(-us Rubeaquensis; Kirschner, Kürsner), Conrad Alsace, Switzerland 1478–1556 Franciscan, later Zwinglian St. 311, Nachtrag p. 122; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Penaforte, Raymundo of Spain c.1180–1275 Dominican NBU Penne, Jacobus France fl. 1699 F. Secret, Rev. Ét. Juives 126(1967), 429 Pepercorne, James Watts England fl. 1840 S. Levy, Misc. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. 4, 1942, 78 Pereszlényi, Pál Hungary 17th c. Catholic Venet.; Szin. Perez Bayer, Franc. Spain 1711–1794 Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 43, 665 Peringer, Gustav Sweden 1651–1710 St. 312; Svensk Peritz, Ismar U.S.A. 19th c. untraced Pertsch, W.H.F. Germany fl. 1720 Lutheran St. 313, Bodl. Cat. 2095 Peter of Alexandria Italy (?) 1342 Augustinian St. A. 38 Peter Niger (Nigri), see Schwarz, Peter (Nigri) Peter of St. Omer France fl. 1296 St. A. 42, Heb. Übers. 610 Petermann, H. Germany fl. 1868 Heb. Formenlehre nach… Samaritaner, Leipzig, 1868   Hebraists, Christian Petit, Pietro Giovanni de Italy d. 1740 St. 314 Petit, Sam. France 1594–1643 Colomils, Gallia Orient. 169f; NBUColomils, Gallia Orient. 169f; NBU Petraeus, Nic. Denmark fl. 1627 Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1627 Petraeus, Severus Denmark fl. 1642 Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1642 Pettersson, J. Sweden fl. 1829 Heb. Grammar, Lund, 1829 Pfalz, Elisabeth of, see Elisabeth, Abbess of Pfalz Pfeiffer, Augustus Germany 1640–1698 Lutheran St. 315, Bodl. Cat. 2098; ADB; NBU Pfeiffer, Aug. Fr. Germany 1748–1817 ADB; NBU Philippe, E. France fl. 1884 Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1884 Philipps, Will. Thos. England fl. 1830 Heb. Grammar, Bristol, 1830 Picinello, Felipe Spain (?), Italy ? Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 196, 18 Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, see Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della Picques, L. France fl. 1670 St. 316 Pike, Samuel Scotland fl. 1802 Heb. Lex., Glasgow, 1802 Pilarik, Andrés Hungary 1640–1702 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Pilarik, Esaias Germany (?) fl. 1677 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1677 Pilarik, István Hungary 1644–1717 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Piscator (Fischer), Johan. Germany 1546–1625 ADB Pistorius (de Nida), Joannes Nidanus Germany 1546–1608 Protestant, later Catholic St. 317, Bodl. Cat. 2406; ADB; NBU Placus, Andreas Austria fl. 1552 Heb. Grammar, Vienna, 1552 Plantavit(ius) de la Pause, Jean France 1576–1651 Protestant, later Catholic Plato of Tivoli (Tiburtinus) Spain fl. 1116 St. A. 44, Heb. Übers. 971; NBU Pocock(e), Edward England 1604–1691 DNB; Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. index, s.v. Pocock(e), Edward England 1648–1727 DNB Pontack(-ous), Arnold France d. 1605 St. 319, Bodl. Cat. 2110 Pontack England (?)1638–1720 (?) DNB Pontus de Tyard, see Tyard, Pontus de Po(o)le, Matthew England 1624–1679 DNB; NBU Porter, Joh. Ireland, England 1751–1819 Venn Porter, John Scott Ireland, England 1801–1880 Unitarian DNB Postel(-lus), Guillaume France, Italy 1510–1581 (expelled) Jesuit, later heretic St. 320, Bodl. Cat. 2111; F. Secret, Le Zôhar chez… Kabbalistes chrétiens, 1958, 140; NBU Prache, Hilaric Germany, England 1614–1679 St. 321 Prado, Laur. Ramirez de Spain ? Colomiés, It. et Hisp. Orientalis, index (only) Praetorius, Abdias (Gottschalk Schultz) Germany 1524–1575 ADB; Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1558 Preiswerk, S. Switzerland (?) fl. 1838 Heb. Grammar, Geneva, 1838 Prideaux, Humphrey England 1648–1724 St. 322, Bodl. Cat. 2112; DNB; NBU Prosser, James England fl. 1838 Heb. Grammar, London, 1838 Pruckner, Andr. Germany 1650–1680 Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 201, 18   Hebraists, Christian Prufer, K.E. Germany fl. 1847 Kritik of Heb. Grammatology, Leipzig, 1847 Pusey, Edw. Bouverie England 1800–1882 DNB Puteus, Archangelus Burgonovo, see Burgonovo, Archangelus de Quadros, Diego (Didacus) de Spain, Italy fl. 1733 Heb. Grammar, Rome, 1733 Quenstedt, Joh. Andreas Germany 1617–1688 Lutheran ADB; NBU Quinquarboreus (Cinqarbres), Johannes France d. 1587 Catholic St. 323, Bodl. Cat. 2127; NBU Quirinus, Laurus ? fl. 1462–1471 St. A. 45 Quistorp, Johann. (sen.) Germany 1584–1648 ADB Rabe, Joh. Jac. Germany 1710–1798 St. 324; ADB Rachelius, Joach. Germany (?)1618–1669 Heb. Grammar, Rostock, 1615; ADB; NBU Ráczböszörményi, János Hungary 1649–1677 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Raedt, Al(h)art de Holland (?)1645–1699 (?) NNBW Rainolds (Reynolds), John England 1549–1607 DNB; NBU Ransom, Samuel England fl. 1843 Heb. Grammar, London, 1843 Raphelengius, Franciscus Netherlands 1539–1597 Catholic, later Calvinist St. 325, Heb. Übers. 653, Bodl. Cat. 2130, 3084; B.N. Belg; ADB Rau (Ravis, Ravius), Christian Germany, England, Sweden 1613–1677 DNB; NBU; NNBW Rau, Joach. Just. Germany fl. 1739 Heb. Grammar, Königsberg, 1739 Rau, Seebald Germany, Holland 1721–1818 NNBW; NBU; ADB Rau, Seebald Fulco Johan. Holland 1765–1807 NNBW; NBU Ravelingen, François van, see Raphelengius, Franciscus Raymund Martini, see Martini, Raimundo Raymund de Penaforte, see Penaforte, Raimundo of Real(-is) Occitanus, Andreas France, Holland fl. 1646 Franciscan F. Secret, Rev. Ét. Juives, 126, 423 Reimann, Jacob. Friedr. Germany 1668–1743 ADB Reina, Casidoro de la Spain ? Bible translator Reineccius, Chr. Germany 1668–1752 St. 326; ADB Reinke, Laurent Germany 1797–1879 Catholic Heb. Grammar, Munster, 1861; ADB Reiske, Johann Germany (?)1641–1701 Lutheran ADB; NBU Reiske, Joh. Jacob Germany 1716–1774 St. 327; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Reland, Adrian Holland 1676–1718 Calvinist St. 328, Bodl. Cat. 2137; NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Renan, Joseph Ernest France 1823–1892 Lapsed Catholic Rendtorf, Joh. Germany ? St. 329 Reuchlin, Antonius Germany fl. 1554 St., Bodl. Cat. 1142, no. 2 Reuchlin (Capnio), Johann Germany 1455–1522 Reudenius, Ambr. Germany fl. 1586 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1586 Révai, Miklós Hungary 1740–1807 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Jòzsef Melich, R.M., Budapest, 1908 Reyher, C. Germany fl. 1825 Heb. Grammar, Gotha, 1825 Reynolds, John, see Rainolds (Reynolds), John Rezzonius, Franc. (sen.) Italy 1731–1780 St. 331; Assemani, Cat. Vat. xivii Rhenferd. Jac. Holland 1654–1712 Lutheran St. 332, Bodl. Cat. 2140; NNBW; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Ribera, Francisco de ? 1537–1591 Jesuit Richard of St. Victor Scotland, France 12th c. Victorine B. Smalley, Study of Bible in Mid. Ages.2, 1952, 106f. Richardson, John England c.1564–1625 DNB Richart ? fl. 1335 Dominican St. A. 49 Riegler, G. Germany fl. 1835 Heb. Grammar, Bamberg, 1835 Ries, Dan. Christ. Germany fl. 1787 Heb. Grammar, Mainz, 1787 Riesser, Joh. Germany fl. 1692 Heb. Grammar, Marburg, 1692 Rigelet, G. Germany fl. 1873 Heb. Grammar (with A. Martinet), Bamberg, 1873 Ritmeier, Chr. Hen. Germany fl. 1697 St. 333, Bodl. Cat. 2312, 2146 Rivet, André France, Holland 1573–1651 Calvinist NNBW; ADB; NBU Rivinus, Tileman Andreas Germany 1601–1656 St. 334, Bodl. Cat. 2148 Ro(h)an, Anna Princess of France (?)1584–1646 Reformed Ch. Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69; NBU Robertson, James Scotland 1714–1795 DNB Robertson, William England d.c. 1680 DNB Roblik, Elias Austria 1689–1765 Catholic (secular priest) B.L.K. Oest. Robustellus, Jos. W. Italy fl. 1655 St. 335 Rodriguez de Castro, José Spain 1730–1799 Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 51, 1282 Rogers, John England 1778–1856 DNB Rohrbacher, René Franc. France (?)1789–1846 Heb. Grammar, Metz, 1843; NBU Roht, Eberhard Rudolf Germany ? Lutheran Ugolini 29, 568 Rolle (Rooles, Roales), Robert England fl. 1555–1585 Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 7, 1966, 243; Foster Romaine, William England 1714–1795 DNB; NBU Römer, Maria Barbara Lehmann von Germany fl. 1700 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 Ron, Joh. England fl. 1637 Heb. Grammar, London, 1637 Ronnow, Magn. Holland (?) fl. 1690 St. 336, Bodl. Cat. 239 Roorda, Taco Holland b. 1801 Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1831 Rosenbergius Germany fl. 1590 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1590 Rosenmuller, E.F.C. Germany fl. 1822 Heb. & Chald. Lex., Halle, 1822 Rosenroth, Chr. Knorr von, see Knorr von Rosenroth, Christian Röser, Jakab Hungary 1641–1689 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov Rosselius, Paul Germany fl. 1618 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1618 Rossi, Giovanni Bern. de Italy 1742–1831 St. 337, Bodl. Cat. 2151, Add.; NBU; Filippo-Ugoni, Della Litteratura Ital., appendix Rota, Orazio Italy fl. 1775 Row, John Scotland (?)1598–1672 (?) DNB Rowley, Alexander England fl. 1648 Haber la-talmidim, London, 1648 Roy, ? U.S.A. fl. 183? Heb. Lex., N.Y., 183? Rubeaquensis, Pellicanus, see Pellican, Conrad Ruckersfelder Holland 18th c. untraced Rumelinas, Ge. Burchard Germany fl. 1716 Lex. Biblicus, Frankfurt, 1716 Rus, Johann Reichard Germany 1679–1738 Lutheran Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 94, 15, 18 Ruschat, Abr. Holland fl. 1707 Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1707 Rutgers, Antonie Holland 1805–1884 NNBW 2, 1244 Sa, Manoel de Portugal, Italy 1530–1596 Jesuit NBU Sacy, Antoine-Isaac Sylvestre de France 1758–1838 St. 33, Bodl. Cat. 2257; NBU Sadler, John England 1615–1674 Puritan DNB St. Cher, Hugh of, see Hugh of St. Cher Salchli, Joh. Jac. Switzerland 1694–1774 St. 339; ADB   Hebraists, Christian Salmeron, Alfonso Spain, Ireland 1515–1585 Jesuit NBU; Enc. Br.11 Salome, S.C. England fl. 1825 Heb. Grammar, London, 1825 Sanden, Bernh. von (sen.) Germany 1636–1703 Lutheran ADB Sanden, Bernhard von (jun.) Germany 1666–1721 Lutheran ADB Sanctius (Sanches), Caspar Spain 1553–1620 Jesuit Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 181, 17 Sancto Aquilino (Eisentraut), Alexius Germany 1732–1785 Carmelite Heb. Grammar, Heidelberg, 1776; ADB Sandbichler, Alois Austria 1751–1820 Augustinian B.L.K. Oest. São Francisco, Luiz de Portugal fl. 1586 Franciscan Saravia, Hadrian a France, Holland, England 1531–1613 Huguenot DNB; NNBW; B.N. Belg; NBU Sarchi, Philip Austria, England fl. 1824 Essay on Heb. Poetry, London, 1824 Sartorius, Joh. Holland 1500–1570 (?) NNBW; ADB Sartorius, Joh. Hungary 1656–1729 (?) Calvinist (?) St. 340; Dan; ADB Saubert, Johann Germany (?)1638–1688 (?) Lutheran St. 341, Bodl. Cat. 2505; ADB Saurin, Jacques Holland, England 1677–1730 Huguenot NNBW; NBU Scaliger, Joseph Justus France, Holland 1540–1609 Calvinist S. Reinach, Rev. Ét Juives 88, 1929, 171f; NNBW; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Scerbo Italy fl. 1888 Heb. Grammar, Florence, 1888 Schaaf, Carolus Germany, Holland 1646–1729 Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1716; NNBW Schach (Scacchi), Fortunato(-tus) Italy 1570–1640 Augustinian Ugolini 32, 806 Schadaeus, Elias Alsace fl. 1591 Heb. Grammar, Strasbourg, 1591 Schaefer, Lud. Christoph. Germany fl. 1720 Heb. Lex., Berburg, 1720 Schauffler, Wilh. Gottl. Germany, U.S.A. 1798–1883 Heb. Grammar in Span., Smyrna, 1852; D Am. B Scheidt (Scheidius), Balth. Alsace 1614–1670 Lutheran St. 342; ADB Scheidt (Scheidius?), Everard Holland 1742–1794 Heb. Grammar, Harderwick, 1792; NNBW Scheltinga, Theodorus Holland 1703–1780 NNBW 9, 975 Scherlogus, Paul ? ? Catholic Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 24, 14–17 Scherping, Jacob Sweden fl. 1737 St. 343 Scher(t)zer(-us), Joh. Adam Germany 1628–1683 St. 344, Bodl. Cat. 2563; ADB Schi(c)k(h)ard(us), Wilhelm Germany 1592–1635 Lutheran St. 345, Bodl. Cat. 2564; ADB; NBU Schindler, Valentin Germany d. 1604 St. 346, Bodl. Cat. 2566; ADB Schleidan (Sleidanus), Joh. Germany 1506/7–1556 Catholic, later Lutheran ADB; NBU; B.N. Belg; Enc. Br.11 Schleusner, Joh. Friedr. Germany 1759–1831 ADB Schlevogt (Slevogt), Paul Germany 1596–1655 Lutheran ADB (Slevogt) Schmid, Anton Austria 1765–1855 Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Schmidt, Joach. Friedr. Germany fl. 1708 Heb. Grammar, Frankfurt, 1708 Schmidt, Johan. Andr. Germany 1652–1726 Lutheran ADB; Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude llustr., 73, 15 Schmidt, Karl Benjamin Germany fl. 1789 Heb. Grammar, Lemgo, 1789 Schmied(t), Sebast. Alsace fl. 1656 Lutheran St. 347, Bodl. Cat. 2568 Schnabel, Hieronymus Wilh. ? ? Meuschen, op. cit. 255, 19 Schnelle(-lius), Sebald Germany 1621–1651 St. 348, Bodl. Cat. 2569 Schnurrer, Christ. Friedr. Germany, England 1724–1822 St., Bodl. Cat. 2668; ADB Schoettgen, Johan. Christian Germany 1687–1751 Lutheran St. 350 Scholl(-ius), J.C.F. Germany ? Hebr. Laut. u. Formenlehre, Leipzig, 1867 Scholz, Hermann Germany fl. 1867 St. 351; NNBW B.N. Belg; ADB; NBU   Hebraists, Christian Schotanus, Christ. Holland 1603–1671 Reformed Ch. Schottanus, Andr. Flanders, Spain, France, Italy 1552–1629 Jesuit St. 349, Bodl. Cat. 2572; ADB Schramm, David (Agricola) ? fl. 1615 Heb. Grammar, c. 1615 (?Place) Schreckenfuchs, Erasmus Oswald Germany 1511–1575 St. 353, Bodl. Cat. 673, no. 3 Schreier, Norbert Hungary 1744–1811 Catholic Szin; Zov Schroeder, Johan. Friedr. Germany fl. 1823 Heb. Lex., Leipzig, 1823 Schroeder, Jo. Joachim Germany 1680–1756 St. 354, cf. Bodl. Cat. 2574; ADB Schroeder, Nicolaus Wilh. Hungary, Holland 1721–1798 (?) Calvinist NNBW; ADB Schubert, Heinr. Fr. W. Germany fl. 1830 Heb. Grammar, Schneeberg, 1830 Schudt, Johan. Jacob Germany 1664–1722 Lutheran St. 355; ADB Schuenemann, Chr. Heinr. Germany fl. 1709 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1709 Schult, Johan. ? fl. 1696 St. 356, 308 Schulten, Carl Sweden fl. 1725 St. 357, Bodl. Cat. 2574; Svensk Schulten(s), Albrecht Holland 1686–1756 NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Schultens, Heinrich Albert Holland 1749–1793 NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Schultens, Johan. Jac. Holland 1716–1778 NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Schultz, Gottschalk, see Praetorius, Abdias Schul(t)z, Johan. Chr. Friedr. Germany (?) fl. 1785 Heb. Lex. Schupart, Johan. Geo. (? Gottfried) Germany 1677–1730 Lutheran ADB; Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1709 Schurman(n), Anna Maria Holland 1607–1678 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69; ADB; NBU Schwab, Johan. P. Germany fl. 1745 St. 358, Bodl. Cat. 2030, no.7 Schwarz, Johan. Conr. Germany 1677–1747 Lutheran ADB Schwarz (Nigri), Peter Germany, Spain c. 1435–c. 1483 Dominican St. A. 41; NBU Schwenter, Daniel Germany 1585–1636 St. 359, Bodl. Cat. 2575; ADB Scio, P. Spain ? Bible translator Scot(t), Michael Scotland, Italy (?)1175–1234 DNB Scots, David Scotland (?)1770–1834 DNB Sebastianus, Aug. Nouzanus(enus) Germany fl. 1530 St. 360, Bodl. Cat. 2576 Sebutia, Caccelia Italy fl. 1683 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69 Securius, PFl Hungary 1659–1721 Calvinist Szin; Pap Seffer, G.A. Germany fl. 1845 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1845 Seidel(-ius), Casp. Germany fl. 1638 St. 361, Bodl. Cat. 2579 Seidenstuecker, Johan. Heinr. Phil. Germany 1765–1817 ADB; Heb. Grammar, Helmstedt 1791 Seidenstuecker, W.F.F. Germany fl. 1836 Heb. Grammar, Soest, 1836 Seiferheld, Jos. Laur. Germany fl. 1763 St. 362, Bodl. Cat. 2031, no. 11; S. Back, Jcd. Literaturbl., 1892, 2 Seineccerius, Nicolaus Germany fl. 1584 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1584 Selden, John England 1584–1654 Puritan Senepin France (?) fl. 1888 Heb. Grammar in Fr., Freiburg, 1888 Serarius, Nicolaus Germany 1555–1609 Jesuit Ugolini, 24, 898; ADB Setiers, L.P. France fl. 1814 Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1814 Seyfried, Christ. Sweden fl. 1664 St. 363, Bodl. Cat. 1079, 2594 Seyfried, Henr. Germany fl. 1663 St. 364 Sgambati(us), Scipio Italy 1595–1652 St. 365 Sharp, Granville England 1735–1813 DNB Sharp, Thomas England 1693–1758 DNB; NBU Shaw, Thomas England 1694–1751 DNB; NBU Sheringham, Robert England, Holland 1602–1678 St. 366, Bodl. Cat. 2594   Hebraists, Christian Shilling, D.(?) France fl. 1883 Heb. Grammar, Lyons, 1883 Sigebert of Gembloux Flanders d. 1113 St. A. 51; Sitzungsber. Wiener Akad, 1859, 29, 309; R.Loewe, Cambridge Hist. Bible, 2, ed. G. Lampe, 1969, 141–3 Sigonio, Carlo Italy (?)1520–1584 Enc. Biogr. Ital; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Sike (Sykes), Henry England d. 1712 Venn Simon, Richard France 1638–1712 (expelled) Oratorian NBU; Enc. Br.11 Simonis, Johan. Germany fl. 1741 Onomasticon Vet. Test., H. Halle, 1741 Sjöbring, P. Sweden fl. 1836 Heb. Grammar, Uppsala, 1836 Skinner, Ralph England 16th–17th c. St. 367; Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. Misc. 4, 1942, 62f. Slaughter, Edward England, 1655–1729 Jesuit DNB; B.N. Belg. Sleidanus, Johan., see Schleidan, Johan. Slevogt, Paul, see Schlevogt, Paul Slonkovic, Martinus Poland fl. 1651 Heb. Grammar, Cracow, 1651 Smal(l)ridge, George England 1663–1719 DNB Smith, Frederick England fl. 1870 Tr. Ewald's Heb. Grammar, London, 1870 Smith, John U.S.A. fl. 1803 Heb. Grammar, Boston, 1803 Smith, Miles England 1568–1624 DNB Smith, Thomas England 1638–1710 St. 368, Bodl. Cat. 2646; DNB; NBU Sőlősi, Pál Hungary 166?–1688 Calvinist Dan Sommer, Gottfr. Christ. Germany fl. 1734 St. 369; Scholem, Bibliography. Kabbalistica, no. 1081; Monats. Gesch. u. Wiss. Jud., 1895/6, 423 Somosi, P. János Hungary 1625–1681 Calvinist Szin; Dan Somossi, János Hungary 1783–1855 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan; János Erdélyi, S.J., Sárospatak, 1864 Sonneschmid, Johan. Justus Germany fl. 1720–1770 Lutheran St. 370 Sonntag, Christoph. Germany 1654–1717 Evangelical Lutheran ADB Spalding, Geo. Ludw. Germany 1762–1811 St. 371; ADB Spalding, Robert England d. 1626 Venn Spannheim, Friedr. (sen.) Holland, Switzerland 1600–1649 ADB; NNBW; NBU Spannheim, Friedr. (jun.) Holland 1632–1701 NNBW; ADB Speidelius, Johan. Chr. Germany fl. 1731 Heb. Grammar, Tübingen, 1731 Spelman, Henry England (?)1564–1641 DNB; NBU; R. Loewe, Heb. Union Coll. Annual, 28, 1957, 221 n.74 Spencer, John England 1630–1693 DNB; NBU; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. 8, 100f. Spencer, Philip Jacob England (?), Germany 17th c. JQR, 9 (18–96/97), 510 Sprecher, Johan. Died. Germany fl. 1703 St. 372, Bodl. Cat. 1079, no. 25 Springer, Daniel Germany 1656–1708 St. 373, Bodl. Cat. 2651 Squier (Squire, Squyer), Adam England d. before 1588 Roth, Bodl. Library Record, 7, 1966, p. 243; Foster Stadler, Johan. Ev. Germany fl. 1831 Heb. Lex., Munich, 1831 Staemmer, Christoph van Holland (?) fl. 1661 St. 374, Bodl. Cat. 1445, 2651 Stancaro(-rus), Franciscus Italy 1501–1574 Reformer ADB; NBU; Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1547 Stapleton, Thomas England 1535–1598 Catholic   Hebraists, Christian Starck (Starke), Heinr. Bened. Germany 1672–1740 Lutheran Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1705; ADB Starckius (Starke), Sebast. Gottfr. Germany d. 1710 St. 375; ADB Steen, Cornelius van den, see Lapide, Cornelius B (van den Steen) Steenbach, Joh. ? ? St. 376 Steiner, Johan. ? fl. 1600 St. 376, n. 1 Steinersdorff, Johan. Christ. Germany fl. 1747 Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1747 Steinmetz, Joh. Andr. (? Adam) Poland (?) 1689–1762 St. 377, Bodl. Cat. 1391, no. 3; Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. 1, 112; ADB Steinweg, Geo. Friedr. Germany fl. 1753 Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1753 Stengel, Lib. Germany fl. 1841 Heb. Grammar, Freiburg, 1841 Stenhagen, G. Sweden fl. 1705 St. 269, Bodl. Cat. 682, no. 29 Steuco (Augustinus Steuchus Eugubinus), Agostino (Steuco de Gubbio) Italy 1496–1549 Augustinian NBU; Enc. Br.11; Stier, Ewald Rud. Germany 1800–1862 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1833; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Stier, G. Germany fl. 1857 Heb. Lex. Leipzig, 1857 Stiles, Ezra New England (U.S.) 1727–1795 Congregationalist D. Am. B.; Enc. Br.11 Stock, Joseph Ireland 1740–1813 DNB Stolberg, Balthasar Germany ? Lutheran Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 52, 15 Stolle, Johan. Henr. Germany (?) fl. 1691 St. 328 Strauch, Aegidius (Giles) Germany 1632–1682 Lutheran ADB Stridzberg, Nic. H. Sweden fl. 1731 St. 380 Struvius, Johan. Julius Germany fl. 1697 St. 381 Stuart, Moses U.S.A. 1780–1852 Heb. Grammar, Andover, New Hants, 1821; D. Am B. Enc. Br.11 Stubbs, Wolfran England d. 1719 Venn Stuckuis, Joannes Guilhelmus Holland (?), France, Switzerland 1542–1607 Protestant Suetonio, Agostino Italy ? St. 383, Heb. Übers. xxvii, line 7 Summenhardt, Konrad Germany (?)1466–1502 St. A. 23; ADB Sur(r)enhusius(-huis, -huysen), Wil. Holland 1666–1729 Calvinist St. 382, Bodl. Cat. 2663; NNBW; NBU Sussex, Augustus Fred. Duke of England 1773–1843 DNB; NBU Swan, G. Sweden fl. 1706 St. 269, cf. 384, Bodl. Cat. 682, no. 29 Sykes, Arthur, Ashley England (?)1684–1756 DNB Sykes, Henry, see Sike, Henry Sylvester, Johannes Hungary 16th c. "Grammatica Hungarolatina"; Robert Dan, S.J., Magyar Könyvszemle 1969, 2 Sypkens, Hendrik Holland 19th c. NNBW 9, 1097 Szántó, István Hungary 1541–1612 Catholic Szin Szatmári, Ötvös István Hungary 1620–1665 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Szatmár–Némethi, Mihály Hungary 1638–1689 Calvinist Szin; Zov Szatmárnémeti, Mihály Hungary, Holland (?) 1667–1709 Calvinist Szin; Zov Szatmárnémeti, Samuel Hungary 1658–1717 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Pap Szatmáry, Orban Samuel Hungary 1711–1757 Calvinist Marm; Szin Szatmáry, P. Daniel Hungary 1769–1818 Calvinist Marm; Szin Szegedi, István Hungary 1505–1572 Calvinist Kohn; Szin; Marm   Hebraists, Christian Székely, István Hungary 151?–156? Calvinist Szin; Pap; Károly Mohácsy, Károlyi Gáspár, Budapest, 1948 Szemiot, Alexander Austria, Poland 1800–1835 Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Szenczi, Molnár Albert Hungary 1574–1634 Calvinist Venet; Szin; Zov Szentiványi, Márton Hungary 1653–1705 Catholic Marm; Szin Szigmondy, Samuel Austria fl. 1828 Heb. Grammar, Vienna, 1828 Szilágyi, Péter Hungary 167?–1723 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Tailor, Francis see Tayler, Francis Talbot, James England 1665–1708 Venn Tanfield, Elisabeth England 1579–1639 Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibliography. xx, 69 Tarnóczi, Márton Hungary 1620–1685 Lutheran Marm; Szin; Zov Tarnow, Johan. Germany 1586–1629 Lutheran ADB Tayler (Tailor, etc.), Francis England fl. 1630–1660 St. 385, Bodl. Cat. 2670 Taylor, Edward New England (U.S.A.) d. 1729 Puritan American Nat. Biogr.; Norman S. Grabo, E.T. Taylor, Jacob Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) 18th c. Inf. From C. Roth;? = author of almanac for 1745, Philadelphia Taylor, Jeremy England 1613–1667 DNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6, 1961, 204 Taylor, John England 1694–1761 Dissenter DNB Teigh, Robert England fl. 1611 trs. Gen.-Kings, King James' Bible Tena, Luis de Spain d. 1622 Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur. Amer., 60, 848 Terentius, Johan. Gerhardi Holland b. 1639 St. 385 n. 1, Bodl. Cat. 169, no. 1133 Theobald (Therebald) France fl. 1250 (?) St. A. 53 Theunitz, Johan. Antonii Holland 1569–1637 (?) NNBW Thiele, E.E. Germany fl. 1795 Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1795 Thiersch, H. Wilh. Josias Germany 1817–1885 ADB; Heb. Grammar, Erlangen, 1842 T(h)irsch, Leopold (O.?) Austria 1733–1788 Jesuit B.L.K. Oest. Heb. Grammar, Prague, 1784 Thomason, George England d. 1666 DNB; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. 8, 1918, 63f. Thompson, Richard Holland, England d. 1612/3 DNB Thorndike, Herbert England 1598–1672 DNB Thorne, William England (?)1568–1630 DNB; Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 7, 1966, 246 n.1 Thuri, György Hungary 157?–160? Calvinist Marm; Szin; R. Dan, Journ. Jew. Stud., 19, 1968, 71f. Thysius, Antonius Flanders, Holland 1565–1640 B.N. Belg; NNBW; ADB Til, Sal. Van Holland 1643–1713 Calvinist NNBW; NBU Tingstadius, Johan. Adam Sweden 1748–1827 Svensk Tissard(us), François France fl. 1508 Heb. & Greek Grammar, Paris, 1508 Tofeus Dobos, Mihály Hungary 1624–1684 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan; Jószef Koncz, T.M., Budapest, 1893 Top, Alexander England fl. 1629 Read Sephardic cursive letter from David Reubeni; trs. Psalms, 1629 Torriano, Car. England 1727–1778 Venn   Hebraists, Christian Tostado (Tostatus), alfonso de Madrigal Spain c.1400–1455 NBU Townley, James England 1774–1833 Methodist DNB; Misc. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., 4, 1942, 75 Traegard, E. Germany fl. 1755 Heb. Grammar, Greifswald, 1755 Transisalanus, Johann., see Campen, Jan (Johannes) van Trigland, Jac. (nepos) Holland 1583–1654 Calvinist St. 386, Bodl. Cat. 2686; NNBW Trilles, Vincentius Spain fl. 1606 Heb. Grammar, Valencia, 1606 Trithemius (Johann Heidenberg of Tritheim), Johannes Germany 1462–1516 Benedictine ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Trivet(h) (Trevet), Nicholas England (?)1258–1328 Dominican DNB; B. Smalley, Study of Bible in Mid. Ages2, 400; R. Leowe (ed. V.D. Lipman), 3 Cent. Anglo-Jew. Hist., 1961, 136, 141 Trost(-ius), Martinus Germany (? Syrian) 1588–1636 ADB; Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1627 Tullberg, Hamp. Kr. Sweden fl. 1834 Heb. Grammar, Lund. 1834 Tyard, Pontus de France 1521–1605 Catholic Tychsen, Oluf Gerard Denmark, Germany 1734–1815 St. 387, Bodl. Cat. 2687; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Tydeman, B.F. Holland 1784–1829 NNBW 2, 1461 Tympe, Johann Gottfr. Germany (?)1697–1768 Lutheran ADB Tyndale, William England, Flanders c.1490–1536 Zwinlian Uchtmann, Alard France fl. 1650 St. 388, Bodl. Cat. 2659 Udall (Uvedale), John England (?)1560–1592 DNB Ugolino(-ini), Blasio Italy (?)1700–1770 Catholic (Jewish apostate?) Uhlemann, Friedr. Gottl. Germany 1792–1864 Heb. Grammar, Berlin, 1827; ADB Ulmann, Johan. Alsace fl. 1663 St. 389, Bodl. Cat. 2691 Uranius, Henricus Switzerland fl. 1541 Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1541; B. Prijs, Basl. Heb. Drucke, 1964, pp. 97, 126 Urban, Anna Weissbrucker Germany 16th c. Zeitchr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 66; Heb. Bibl., 20, 66 Urbanus, Rhegius Henr. Germany fl. 1535 St. 390; L. Geiger, Zeitschr. f. Gesch. d. Juden in Deutschl. 3, 105 Uri (Ury), Johan. Hungary, England 1726–1796 St. 391, Bodl. Cat. 2695; DNB Ursinus, Johan. Heinr. Germany 1608–1667 ADB; NBU; Ugolini, 21, 766 Ussermann, Aemilian Germany 1737–1798 Benedictine ADB; Heb. syntax, Salisbury, 1764 Ussher, James Ireland 1581–1656 DNB; NBU Uythage, Cn. Cor. Holland fl. 1680 St. 392, Bodl. Cat. 2696 Valckenier, Johan. Holland b. 1617 NNBW 10, 1071 Valera, Cipriano de Spain, England b. 1531 Foster; Venn Valensis, Theoph. Germany fl. 1631 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1631 Valeton, J.P.P. Holland 19th c. untraced Vallensis, Joannes France fl. 1545 Heb. Grammar, Paris, c. 1545 Valois, Louis de, see Louis de Valois Valperga, Tommaso di Caluso Italy 1737–1815 Heb. Grammar, Turin, 1805; NBU Valverdius, Bartholomaeus Spain, Italy fl. 1581 St. 393 Varenius, August Germany 1620–1684 Lutheran St. 394; ADB Vásárhelyi, K. Péter Hungary 160?–1660 Lutheran Szin Vasseur, Joshua le France fl. 1646 Heb. Grammar, Sedan, 1646   Hebraists, Christian Vatable(-blé, -blus, Ouatablé, Gastabled), François France c.1490–1547 St. 395, Bodl. Cat. 2699; NBU Vater, Johan. Severin Germany 1771–1826 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1798; ADB; NBU Vedelius, Nicolaus Germany, Holland 1592–1642 NNBW Vehe, Matth. (? Mich.) Germany fl. 1581 St. 396; ADB Venema, Herman Holland 1697–1787 NNBW Venetus, Franc Geo. (Zorzi), see Giorgio (Zorzi), Francesco Venusi, Johann Bernhard Austria 1751–1823 Cisterian B.L.K. Oest. Verbrugge, Otho Holland 1670–1745 NNBW 9, 1186 Verestói, György Hungary 1698–1764 Calvinist Marm; Szin; Zov Vermigli, Pietro Martire, see Martyr, Peter Verschuir, Johannes Hendrik Holland 1735–1803 NNBW Verseghy, Ferenc Hungary 1757–1822 Catholic Marm; Szin; S. Krauss, Egy. Phil. Közl., 1899, 214–32 Vesey, Gergely Hungary 18th c. Calvinist Marm; Szin Veszelin, Pál Kismariai Hungary, Holland d. 1645 Szin Veszprémi, B. István Hungary 1637–1713 Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Viccars, John England 1604–1660 DNB Vicinus, Jos. de, see Voisin, Joseph de Vieira, Eman. Holland (?) fl. 1728 Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1728 Vigenlre, Blaise de France 1523–1596 (nominal) Catholic Vignal(-ius), Pierre France fl. 1562–1612 P. Colomils, Gallia Orientalis, p. 146 Villalpando, Juan Bautista Spain 1552–1608 Jesuit NBU Villanova, Arnaldo de Spain (?)1230–1313 NBU; Enc. Br.11 Vinding, Johan. Paul Holland fl. 1633 St. 397, Bodl. Cat. 1837, note. Viterbo, Aegidius (Egidio) da Italy, France 1465–1532 Augustinian (cardinal) Vitringa, Campegius Holland 1659–1722 Calvinist NNBW 10, 1122; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Viweg, Chr. Germany fl. 1685 Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1685 Vizaknai, U. Mihály Hungary 1654–169? Calvinist Szin; Zov; Dan Vloten, Willem van Holland 1780–1829 NNBW 8, 1304 Voetius, Gysbertus Holland 1589–1676 NNBW; NBU; Enc.Br.11 Vogel, Geo. Johan. Ludw. Germany 1742–1776 Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1769; ADB Vogelsangh, Reinerus Holland 1610–1679 NNBW 10, 1128 Voisin (Vicinus), Joseph de France c.1610–1685 St. 398, Bodl. Cat. 2269 Volborth, Jo. Karl Germany 1748–1796 Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1788; ADB Vonck, Cornelis Hugo (? Valerius) Holland 1724–1768 NNBW Vorst(-ius), Will. Hendrik van der Holland d. 1652 Remonstrant St. 399, Bodl. Cat. 2709 Vorstheimer, Joh., see Forster, Johann Vosen, Christ. Hermann Germany 1815–1871 Catholic Heb. Grammar, Freiburg, 1854; ADB Voss(-ius), Dionysius Holland 1612–1633(?) St. 400, Bodl. Cat. 2710; NNBW; NBU Vossius, Gerhard Jan Holland, England 1577–1649 Reformed Ch. DNB; ADB; NBU Vossius, Isaac Holland, Sweden, England 1618–1689 Anglican DNB; NNBW; ADB; NBU Vriemont, Emo Lucius Holland 1699–1760 NNBW; NBU Wachner, Andr. Geo. Germany fl. 1735 Heb. Grammar, Göttingen, 1735 Wachter, Johan. Geo. Germany 1663–1757 Scholem, Bibl. Kabbalistica, no. 1164; ADB; NBU Waeijen, Johan van der Holland 1639–1701 NNBW 10, 1148 Wagenseil, Helena Sybilla Möller, see Moeller, Helena Sybilla Wagenseil   Hebraists, Christian Wagenseil, Johann Christoph Germany (?)1633–1705 (?) St. 401, Nachtrag, p. 122, Bodl. Cat. 189, Add. p. 1xxv; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Wagner, Christian ? ? St. 402 Wakefield (Wakfeldus), Robert England d. 1537 St. 403, Bodl. Cat. 2713; DNB Wakefield, Thomas England d. 1575 DNB Wallin, Geo (jun.) Germany fl. 1722 St. 404 Walreven, Didericus Adrianus Holland 1732–1804 NNBW 9, 1276 Walther, Johan. ? fl. 1710 St. 405 Walther(-us), Christ. Germany fl. 1705 St. 406, Bodl. Cat. 1875 no.30 Walther, F. Germany fl. 1884 Heb. Formlehre, Potsdam, 1884 Walther(-us), Michael Germany 1638–1692 Heb. Grammar, Nuremberg, 1643; ADB Walton, Bryan England 1600–1661 DNB Warner, Levinius Germany, Holland 1619–1665 St. 407, Bodl. Cat. 2714, Leiden Cat. ix; NNBW Wartha, Johann Paul Austria 1714–before 1800 Heb. lexicon & grammar, Styria, 1756, Prague, 1743; B.L.K. Oest. Waser(us), Kaspar Switzerland 1565–1625 Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1600; ADB Wasmuth, Matth. Germany 1625–1688 Lutheran Heb. Grammar, Kiel, 1666; ADB; NBU Weckerlin, Chr. Ferd. Germany fl. 1797 Heb. Grammar, Stuttgart, 1797 Weemes, John, see Wemyss, John Wegner, (?) Gottfr. Germany 1644–1709 ADB Weidmann (? Wiedemann), J. Germany ? St. 295, 408 Weiganmei(e)r, Georg Germany 1555–1599 St. 409, Bodl. Cat. 2715 Weinmann, Johan. Germany 1599–1672 ADB Weissbrucker, Anna Urban, see Urban, Anna Weissbrucker Weitenauer, Ignaz Austria 1709–1783 Jesuit B.L.K. Oest. Wemyss (Weemes), John Scotland c.1579–1636 Presbyterian DNB; J. Bowman, Jew. Quart. Rev., 39 (1949), 379f. Wenrik, Johann Geo. Austria 1787–1847 Catholic B.L.K. Oest. Wessel, Johan. Holland, Germany, Switzerland 1419–1489 St. A. 35; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 W(eszelin), Kismariai Paulus, see Veszelin, PFl Kismariai Wet(t)stein, Johan. Jakob Switzerland, Holland 1693–1754 Remonstrant NNBW; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br.11 Wetzel, Joh. Chr. Friedr. Germany 1762–1810 Heb. Grammar, Berlin, 1796; ADB Weyers, Hendrik Engelinus Holland 1805–1844 NNBW 10, 1191 Weymar, Daniel Germany fl. 1677 Lutheran Ugolini, 11, 646 Wheeler, H.M. England fl. 1850 Heb. Grammar, London, 1850 Wheelocke, Abr. England 1593–1653 DNB Whittaker, John William England (?)1790–1854 DNB Wichmannshausen, Johan. Christoph. Germany 1663–1727 Lutheran ADB Widmanstetter(-stadt, -stadius), Johann Albrecht or Lucrecius Austria 1506–1557 Catholic St. 410; ADB; NBU Widmarius, Abdias Holland 1591–1668 NNBW 7, 1319 Wiedemann, J., see Weidmann (? Wiedemann), J. Wiesendanger, Jakob, see Ceporinus, Jakob Wilkins, David England 1685–1745 (?) St. 411, Nachtrag, p.122, Bodl. Cat. 2726; DNB Willard, ? U.S.A. fl. 1817 Heb. Grammar, Harvard, 1817   Hebraists, Christian Willemer, Johann Germany ? Lutheran Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 58, 15 Willet, Andrew England 1562–1621 DNB Willis, Arthur England fl. 1834 Heb. Grammar, London, 1834 Willmet, Joannes Holland 1750–1835 NNBW 10, 1222 Wilson, Charles England fl. 1782 Heb. Grammar, London, 1782 Wilson, Daniel England, India 1778–1858 DNB Wilson, John Scotland, India 1804–1875 Heb. Grammar in Marathi, Bombay, 1832; DNB Win(c)kler, Johan. Friedr. Germany 1679–1738 St. 412, Bodl. Cat. 1081, no. 37; ADB Winer, Johan. Geo. Bened. Germany 1789–1858 St. 413, Bodl. Cat. 2726; ADB; Enc. Br.11 Winkler, ? Germany (?) 18th c. St. 412; J.C. Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. ii, 1264, no. 69 Wisendangen, Jakob von, see Ceporinus, Jakob Witter, Henr. Bernh. Germany fl. 1703 St. 414, Bodl. Cat. 2726 Wittig, Johan. Sigmund Germany fl. 1802 Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1802 Witzius, Hermann Holland 1636–1708 NNBW 3, 1445 Woeldicke, Marcus Denmark 1699–1750 St. 415, Bodl. Cat. 1877, no. 43 Wolder(-us), David Germany d. 1604 Heb. Grammar, Hamburg, 591; ADB (?) Wolf(f), Geo. Germany fl. 1557 St. 416 Wolf(f)(-ius), Johann Christian Germany 1683–1739 St. 417, Bodl. Cat. 2730, Add., Introd. xxxiv; ADB; NBU Wolf(-ph), Johan. Jac. Switzerland (?)1521–1571 (?) St. 419; ADB (?) Wolf, Johann W. ? d. 1751 untraced Wolfe, J. Robert England fl. 1860 Heb. Grammar, London, 1860 Wolfer(d)us, Michael Holland 1627–1664 NNBW 10, 1234 Wolff, Johann Henr. ? fl. 1726 St. 418 Wollaston, William England 1659/60–1724 Deist DNB; NBU; A. Altmann, Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., 16, 1949, 184f. Wolters, Ludovicus Germany fl. 1718 Selecta e Sohar et Rabboth, Bremen, 1718 Worm, Christian ? ? St. 420 Wotton, William England 1666–1726 (?) St. 421, Bodl. Cat. 2734; DNB; NBU Wuelf(f)er, Johan. Germany 1651–1724 Lutheran St. 422, Bodl. Cat. 2734; ADB (s.v. Daniel W.) Wuerttemberg, Antonia, Princess of, see Antonia, Princess of Wuerttemberg Ximénez de Cisneros, Francisco Spain 1436–1517 Franciscan Yeates, Thomas England 1768–1839 DNB Young, Robert Scotland 1822–1888 DNB; Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., Misc. 4, 1942, 79 Zabler, Jób Hungary 1628–1664 Lutheran Szin; Zov; Dan Zamora, Andreas de León Spain ? St. 64; J.C. Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. 2, 1167, 1180 Zanolini, Antonio Italy fl. 1747 St. 423 Zasio, Andrés Hungary 1740–1816 Calvinist Szin Zeleny, Franc. Bohemia fl. 1756 Heb. Grammar, Prague, 1756 Zeller, Andr. Christoph. Germany fl. 1711 St. 424, Bodl. Cat. 1878, 2760   Hebraists, Christian Zeltner, Geo. Gust. Germany 1672–1738 St. 425, Bodl. Cat. 2761, Add; ADB; NBU Zieriksee, Amandus van, see Amandus van Zieriksee Zorzi, Francesco Georgio (Franciscus Venetus), see Giorgio, Francesco Zsigmondi, Samuel Hungary 1788–1833 Lutheran Szin Zwingli, Ulrich (Huldreich) Switzerland 1484–1531 Reformer NBU; ADB; Enc. Br.11

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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